University of Bergen study: Smoking fathers increase asthma-risk in future offspring

3 Oct

There are numerous reasons why smoking is considered bad for an individual and there are numerous research studies which list the reasons. Studies are showing how bad second hand smoke is for children. A MNT article, Smoking During Pregnancy May Lower Your Child’s Reading Scores:

Babies born to mothers who smoke more than a pack of cigarettes a day while pregnant have lower reading scores and a harder time with reading tests, compared with children whose mothers do not smoke.
This is the conclusion of a recent study conducted by researchers at Yale School of Medicine and published in The Journal of Pediatrics in November 2012. The reading tests measured how well children read out loud and understood what they were reading.

This isn’t the first study to suggest that smoking in pregnancy may affect a child’s future health and development. A study released in August 2012 said that smoking during pregnancy increases a child’s risk of asthma. In addition, a 2009 study linked smoking during pregnancy to behavioral problems among 3 and 4 year olds boys…. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/253100.php

An Inserm and Pierre and Marie Curie University study adds behavior problems to the list of woes children of smokers suffer.

Science Daily reported in Early exposure to tobacco can cause behavioral problems in children:

Researchers from Inserm and Pierre and Marie Curie University (UPMC), in collaboration with the university hospitals of 6 French cities, have analysed data on pre- and postnatal exposure to tobacco in the homes of 5,200 primary school children. They show that this exposure is associated with a risk of behavioural disorders in children, particularly emotional and conduct disorders. The association is stronger when exposure takes place both during pregnancy and after birth. These data show the risk associated with smoking in early life and its behavioural repercussions when the child is of school-going age.These results are published in the journal PLOS ONE.

The consequences of tobacco exposure are widely documented. It leads to many illnesses, including asthma. However, the potential role of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is much less well known in terms of its link to behavioural problems in children. In this context, the team led by Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Inserm Research Director at Unit 1136, “Pierre Louis Public Health Institute” (Inserm/UPMC) examined the association between pre- and postnatal ETS exposure and behavioural problems in children….

These observations seem to confirm those carried out in animals, i.e. that the nicotine contained in tobacco smoke may have a neurotoxic effect on the brain. During pregnancy, nicotine in tobacco smoke stimulates acetylcholine receptors, and causes structural changes in the brain. In the first months of life, exposure to tobacco smoke generates a protein imbalance that leads to altered neuronal growth….. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/09/150928103029.htm?utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=facebook

Steven Reinberg reported in the Health Day article, Secondhand Smoke in Infancy May Harm Kids’ Teeth.  http://consumer.healthday.com/kids-health-information-23/cavities-and-dental-news-118/secondhand-smoke-in-infancy-may-harm-kids-teeth-704482.html

Science Daily reported in Smoking fathers increase asthma-risk in future offspring:

A Norwegian study shows that asthma is three times more common in those who had a father who smoked in adolescence than offspring who didn’t.

It is well known that a mother’s environment plays a key role in child health. However, recent research, including more than 24,000 offspring, suggests that this may also be true for fathers.

“Offspring with a father who smoked only prior to conception had over three times more early-onset asthma than those whose father had never smoked,” says Professor Cecilie Svanes at the Centre for International Health, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen (UiB).

Early debut increases risk

The study shows that both a father’s early smoking debut and a father’s longer smoking duration before conception increased non-allergic early-onset asthma in offspring. This is equally true with mutual adjustment, and adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked and years since quitting smoking.

“The greatest increased risk for their children having asthma was found for fathers having their smoking debut before age 15. Interestingly, time of quitting before conception was not independently associated with offspring asthma,” Svanes says.

Smoking fathers may influence gene control in children

Concerning mother’s smoking, the research found more offspring asthma if the mother smoked around pregnancy, consistent with previous studies. However, no effect of maternal smoking only prior to conception was identified. The difference from father’s smoking suggests effects through male sperm cells.

“Smoking is known to cause genetic and epigenetic damage to spermatozoa, which are transmissible to offspring and have the potential to induce developmental abnormalities,” explains Svanes.

It is previously known that nutritional, hormonal and psychological environment provided by the mother permanently alters organ structure, cellular response and gene expression in her offspring. Father’s lifestyle and age appear, however, to be reflected in molecules that control gene function.

“There is growing evidence from animal studies for so called epigenetic programming, a mechanism whereby the father’s environment before conception could impact on the health of future generations,” Svanes says….                                                                                                       https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160928135903.htm

Citation:

Smoking fathers increase asthma-risk in future offspring

Date:         September 28, 2016

Source:     University of Bergen

Summary:

Offspring with a father who smoked prior to conception had more than three times higher chance of early-onset asthma than children whose father had never smoked. Both a father’s early smoking debut and a father’s longer smoking duration before conception increased non-allergic early-onset asthma in offspring. This suggests that not only the mother’s environment plays a key role in child health, but also the father’s lifestyle, shows a new study including 24,000 children.

Journal Reference:

  1. Cecilie Svanes, Jennifer Koplin, Svein Magne Skulstad, Ane Johannessen, Randi Jakobsen Bertelsen, Byndis Benediktsdottir, Lennart Bråbäck, Anne Elie Carsin, Shyamali Dharmage, Julia Dratva, Bertil Forsberg, Thorarinn Gislason, Joachim Heinrich, Mathias Holm, Christer Janson, Deborah Jarvis, Rain Jögi, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Eva Lindberg, Ferenc Macsali, Andrei Malinovschi, Lars Modig, Dan Norbäck, Ernst Omenaas, Eirunn Waatevik Saure, Torben Sigsgaard, Trude Duelien Skorge, Øistein Svanes, Kjell Torén, Carl Torres, Vivi Schlünssen, Francisco Gomez Real. Father’s environment before conception and asthma risk in his children: a multi-generation analysis of the Respiratory Health In Northern Europe study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 2016; dyw151 DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyw151

Here is the press release from the University of Bergen:

Smoking fathers increase asthma-risk in future offspring.

A Norwegian study shows that asthma is three times more common in those who had a father who smoked in adolescence than offspring who didn’t.

SMOKING FATHERS: If you smoke as a young man, your future offspring will have a higher risk of getting asthma.

By Kim E. AndreassenPublished: 22.09.2016 (Last updated: 28.09.2016)

It is well known that a mother’s environment plays a key role in child health. However, recent research, including more than 24,000 offspring, suggests that this may also be true for fathers.

“Offspring with a father who smoked only prior to conception had over three times more early-onset asthma than those whose father had never smoked,” says Professor Cecilie Svanes at the Centre for International Health, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen (UiB).

Early debut increases risk

The study shows that both a father’s early smoking debut and a father’s longer smoking duration before conception increased non-allergic early-onset asthma in offspring. This is equally true with mutual adjustment, and adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked and years since quitting smoking.

“The greatest increased risk for their children having asthma was found for fathers having their smoking debut before age 15. Interestingly, time of quitting before conception was not independently associated with offspring asthma,” Svanes says.

The study is published in the scientific magazine International Journal of Epidemiology

Smoking fathers may influence gene control in children

Concerning mother’s smoking, the research found more offspring asthma if the mother smoked around pregnancy, consistent with previous studies. However, no effect of maternal smoking only prior to conception was identified. The difference from father’s smoking suggests effects through male sperm cells.

“Smoking is known to cause genetic and epigenetic damage to spermatozoa, which are transmissible to offspring and have the potential to induce developmental abnormalities,” explains Svanes.

It is previously known that nutritional, hormonal and psychological environment provided by the mother permanently alters organ structure, cellular response and gene expression in her offspring. Father’s lifestyle and age appear, however, to be reflected in molecules that control gene function.

“There is growing evidence from animal studies for so called epigenetic programming, a mechanism whereby the father’s environment before conception could impact on the health of future generations,” Svanes says.

Welding increases risk

Svanes and her team also investigated whether parental exposure to welding influenced asthma risk in offspring, with a particular focus on exposures in fathers prior to conception.

The study shows that paternal welding increased offspring asthma risk even if the welding stopped prior to conception. Smoking and welding independently increased offspring asthma risk, and mutual adjustment did not alter the estimates of either.

“For smoking and welding starting after puberty, exposure duration appeared to be the most important determinant for the asthma risk in offspring,” says Cecilie Svanes.

FACTS

Smoking fathers study

  • Cecilie Svanes investigated whether parental smoking and exposure to welding influenced asthma risk in offspring, with a particular focus on exposures in fathers prior to conception.
  • The study was conducted on a population-based cohort from seven Northern European research centres (RHINE study).
  • The experiences of more than 24,000 offspring, of which over 6000 had smoking and/or welding fathers, were included in the study The participants were from Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, Estonia.
  • The researches wanted to identify  vulnerable periods during male reproductive development by addressing whether potential preconception effects were related to exposure age, exposure duration, and time from quitting exposure until conception.
  • This research is part of the ECRHS study, and contributes to the large EU funded project “Ageing Lungs in European Cohorts.

http://www.uib.no/en/news/100994/smoking-fathers-increase-asthma-risk-future-offspring

See, Prenatal care fact sheet http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/prenatal-care.html

Our goal as a society should be a healthy child in a healthy family who attends a healthy school in a healthy neighborhood. ©

Resources:

  1. A History of Tobacco
    http://archive.tobacco.org/History/Tobacco_History.html
  2. American Lung Association’s Smoking and Teens Fact Sheet Women and Tobacco Use
    African Americans and Tobacco Use
    American Indians/Alaska Natives and Tobacco Use
    Hispanics and Tobacco Use
    Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders and Tobacco Use
    Military and Tobacco Use
    Children/Teens and Tobacco Use
    Older Adults and Tobacco Use
    http://www.lung.org/stop-smoking/about-smoking/facts-figures/specific-populations.html
  3. Center for Young Women’s Health A Guide for Teens http://www.youngwomenshealth.org/smokeinfo.html
  4. Kroger Resources Teens and Smoking
    http://kroger.staywellsolutionsonline.com/Wellness/Smoking/Teens/
  5. Teens Health’s Smoking
    http://kidshealth.org/teen/drug_alcohol/tobacco/smoking.html
  6. Quit Smoking Support.com
    http://www.quitsmokingsupport.com/teens.htm

Where information leads to Hope. Dr. Wilda.com

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