Archive | September, 2016

Dr. Wilda Reviews: ChocZero chocolates

29 Sep

Moi received three complimentary boxes of ChocZero chocolates. The boxes for the samples moi received were understated and elegant. The samples were 50% cocoa dark chocolate, 70% cocoa dark chocolate, and milk chocolate. ChocZero is a brand of Snapfit located in Fullerton California. Olive Nation defines the qualities of great chocolate in The Qualities of Good and Great Chocolate:

The bottom line for defining a great chocolate is the amount of cocoa solids present. The percentage should be a minimum of over 45 percent for dark chocolate and 30 percent for milk chocolate. Truly great chocolates have cocoa solids over 70 percent. Many of the finest chocolates also have their origins as coming from one geographical location which can change the taste of the chocolate dramatically.

One test to find out whether or not the chocolate you have purchased is to let a bit sit in your mouth without chewing or masticating the piece. Quality chocolate will melt in your mouth. Why? The content of the cocoa butter is what makes the chocolate melt in your mouth and provides its distinctive texture and flavor. Today most mainstream chocolate manufacturers have chosen to reduce the amount of cocoa butter in their products replacing this all-important ingredient with cheaper and nastier fats. This of course allows the manufacturers to offer their products at a much lower price. So what do you look for on the label? Does the label on the bar or box clearly indicate that it is truly chocolate?

Of course you should carefully read the ingredients. Great chocolate should contain no more than about 6 ingredients and contain the percentage of cocoa solids as outlined above….                                                    https://www.olivenation.com/the-qualities-of-good-and-great-chocolate/

The ChocZero site describes the product.

According to ChocZero, the ingredients are:

ChocZero is an all-natural, premium, artisan-style chocolate made with no added
sugar or sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, erythritol, xylitol). Sugar, commonly used
in chocolate confections, was replaced with a healthy, natural, soluble vegetable fiber
and naturally sweetened with monk fruit extract.
ChocZero comes in three delectable varieties to suit individual taste preferences:
50% Dark Chocolate, 70% Dark Chocolate and Milk Chocolate.
Each 10-gram chocolate square is individually foil-wrapped.

ChocZero – Box of 6

$4.99

Free Shipping on Orders $35 and Over

Variants:

70% Dark 50% Dark Milk Chocolate

http://shop.snapfit.com/products/choczero

Sugar is not an ingredient.

Kerry Torrens, nutritional therapist wrote in The truth about sugar:

The instant ‘lift’ we get from sugar is one of the reasons we turn to it at times of celebration or when we crave comfort or reward. However, even those of us without a sweet tooth may be eating more than we realise because so many everyday processed foods, from cereals and bread to pasta sauce and soups contain sugar….                                                                                                                                                                    http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/truth-about-sugar

There are many medical reasons for reducing sugar in one’s diet. The issue for many reduced or sugar free products is can palates educated to the taste of sugar adapt to a different option?

Elaine Magee, MPH, RD wrote about sugar free chocolate in Taste Test: Sugar-Free Chocolate: Can sugar-free chocolate compare to the real thing?

To sweeten “sugar-free” chocolate, most companies use maltitol, a sugar alcohol that is 90% as sweet as sugar (“sugar alcohol” is a somewhat misleading term, as these are neither sugar nor alcohol). This type of sugar replacer (a group that also includes sorbitol, xylitol, mannitol, and isomalt) is particularly helpful to people with diabetes, because only a portion of it is digested and absorbed. And the part that is absorbed through the intestinal tract is absorbed slowly, so there’s a relatively little rise in blood sugar.

Kristen McNutt, PhD, JD, nutrition communications consultant to isomalt maker Palatinit, says sugar alcohols give the taste of sugar with only half the calories. Further, she says, they don’t cause cavities, and don’t cause your blood glucose to go up as high as it would if you ate sugar…

‘Sugar-Free’ Doesn’t Mean ‘Fat-Free’

Its sweetness, however, is only one reason the taste of chocolate appeals to so many of us. The other is cocoa butter. And because cocoa butter is rich in saturated fat, so are many of these sugar-free products….

Side Effects

Here’s another reason to make sure you enjoy these sweets in moderation: In fine print on most packages of sugar-free chocolate is a warning: “Excessive consumption may cause a laxative effect.”

This is thanks to the part of the sugar alcohol that isn’t absorbed. It goes through the intestinal tract and gets digested by bacteria of the gut. Discomfort ranging from gas to diarrhea can result — depending on how much of the chocolate you consume and your individual intestinal tract…. http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/taste-test-sugar-free-chocolate#1

ChocZero is a good option for those who want sugar free chocolate.

The 50% cocoa ChocZero was not luscious enough for moi’s palate given that the taste of sugar was missing. The chocolate was good, but it just did not have the richer taste of the 70% cocoa recipe. The milk chocolate was in the middle.

Dr. Wilda gives a thumbs up to the 70% cocoa receipe.

Resources:

ChocZero offers sugar-free chocolate that meets demand for natural, clean labels

http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/Manufacturers/ChocZero-offers-sugar-free-chocolate-that-is-natural-clean

The Dieter’s (and Diabetic Person’s) Guide to Buying Chocolate                                                 http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/features/the-dieters-and-diabetic-persons-guide-to-buying-chocolate

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http://drwildareviews.wordpress.com/

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Dr. Wilda Reviews Seattle Asian Art Museum Reboot

29 Sep

Moi was one of local media invited to attend a press conference which described the current status of the Seattle Art Museum’s (SAM) reboot of the Asian Art Museum. Bryan Cohen   of the Capital Hill Blog provides context in In 2017, Volunteer Park’s Asian Art Museum to close for 18 months for $45M overhaul:

The art museum at the heart of Volunteer Park is preparing for its first major upgrade since it opened its doors 83 years ago. Seattle Art Museum has begun soliciting contractors for an overhaul to its Asian Art Museum that will include adding at least 7,500-square-feet of new gallery and event space, as well as an education studio and art storage space.

SAM plans to close the museum in the spring of 2017 for about 18 months until work is complete. Plans also call for replacing the heating and A/C systems, remodeling the bathrooms, accessibility upgrades, and seismic improvements.

The $28 million project was initially slated to start in 2008 but was delayed due to the financial crisis and collapse of Washington Mutual, which resulted in a “substantial” loss of revenue for the museum. A 2014 agreement approved by the City Council reactivated $11 million of city funds for the project — funds first set aside as part of the 2008 parks levy.

UPDATE: CHS asked for the budget on the project — the $28 million covers only construction. The total planned cost for the overhaul is $45 million, SAM now tells CHS.

“SAM is in the preliminary planning phase of the Asian Art Museum renovation,” a SAM spokesperson writes. “The anticipated total cost for the project is currently estimated to be in the neighborhood of $45 million, but is dependent on the final design to be revealed later this year.”

The building’s Art Deco facade will remain in tact, but some exterior work will be part of the overhaul. The landmarks protected building will also require the approval of the city’s Architectural Review Committee. A spokesperson for SAM said the museum did not have additional details as it is still working with LMN Architects on the designs….                                   http://www.capitolhillseattle.com/2016/06/in-2017-volunteer-parks-asian-art-museum-to-close-for-18-months-for-28m-overhaul/

The project has funds already committed from King County and SAM is hopeful that it will receive funds from Seattle and the State of Washington.

Moi asked two questions during the press conference and after the press conference more questions came to mind. During the press conference moi asked:

  1. Does the update mean that more artifacts now in storage will be permanently displayed?
  2. Since the education space in the proposed building is expanded, does that mean there will be more education programs open to the public?

The questions which moi had after the presentation are:

  1. Given that the expansion is a public-private partnership, why did the public members agree to provide the funds? What is the accountability for the dispersal of the funds, are there benchmarks, and what is the public benefit. This question should probably be addressed to the public bodies.
  2. Does this project fit into the general purpose of the question what is a museum?

A representative of SAM was unsure, at this point, about the amount of new exhibit space and the plan is toward more education programs.

SAM Asian Museum is interesting for a number of reasons including the building and the fact that it is sited at Volunteer Park   http://volunteerparktrust.org/history/  Both the Asian Art Museum and park are on the National Historic Registry and Seattle Landmark Registry. Both the building and park have vocal supporters who are protective of each venue and that loyalty presents challenges to any update or change. Eugene Dillenburg in What, if Anything, Is a Museum?

The Heart of the Matter

Exhibits, I will argue, are the defining feature of the museum. They are what make us different from every other type of public service organization. Exhibits are how we educate. Exhibits are what we do with our collections. Yes, we do other things as well, and those things—research, publication, outreach, programming—are very important. But those things are not unique to the museum. Only the museum uses exhibits as its primary means of fulfilling its public service mission.

Thus, a more robust definition of a museum might be: an institution whose core function

includes the presentation of public exhibits for the public good.A museum can do many things, but to merit that title it must do exhibits….                                                                                      http://name-aam.org/uploads/downloadables/EXH.spg_11/5%20EXH_spg11_What,%20if%20Anything,%20Is%20a%20Museum__Dillenburg.pdf

Dillenburg provides the rationale for the current reboot.

SAM makes the following points at the SAM site:

PRESERVE TODAY. INSPIRE FOREVER.

From its cherished Art Deco façade to the lush urban greenspace that surrounds it, the Asian Art Museum is one of the most beloved treasures in our creative, cultured, and curious city. As SAM’s original home and the heart of beautiful Volunteer Park, the museum is an invaluable anchor in our city’s rapidly changing landscape.

But did you know that our historic museum hasn’t been substantially restored or renovated since its inception in 1933? Join us in this long-overdue initiative to renovate a beloved cultural landmark and preserve a quintessential Seattle experience forever.

Restoring an icon

Think about the first time you saw the Asian Art Museum’s magnificent Art Deco exterior. Or when you played atop the famed camels flanking the front doors—then crossed the threshold to experience exceptional art from around the globe.

These are the experiences that shape Seattle’s visual fabric. The Asian Art Museum has been a part of this shared history since 1933, when Paris-trained architect Carl Gould put the final touches on the museum’s stunning design. In the same year, museum founder Dr. Richard E. Fuller donated to the museum to the city as the first home of SAM, which would eventually be named to the Washington Heritage Register of Historic Places.

In a city where change is as constant as rain in the forecast, our renovation plan ensures the museum’s future.

Protecting our collection

From majestic Buddha sculptures to our iconic early 17th-century Japanese Crows screens to the recently acquired Colored Vases by Chinese artist Ai Weiwei, our collection has been imaginatively curated and expanded for 80 years.

Our renovation plan will help us safeguard these precious works through significant improvements in our heating and cooling systems, art storage, and conservation space. These necessary renovations will help us preserve our treasured collection so that it may be enjoyed for generations to come.

Connecting with Asia

The rich programming of the Asian Art Museum has long explored fascinating, diverse perspectives on Asian history and culture and Asia’s presence in the world. With special exhibitions like Garden and Cosmos: The Royal Paintings of Jodhpur and Chiho Aoshima: Rebirth of the World, the popular Gardner Center for Asian Art and Ideas Saturday University lecture series, and our lively Free First Saturday events for families, our mission is to provide a deep, multi-faceted understanding of Asia, one of the most significant cultural and economic regions in the world.

Our exciting renovation plans include expanding our already exhilarating programming and exhibition and educational spaces, allowing all of us to connect with the continent’s cultures as never before.

ENHANCING AND EXPANDING OUR SPACE

After the proposed expansion, doors in the Fuller Garden Court will lead to a brilliant new glass addition, providing views to Volunteer Park, a welcoming green space in our increasingly dense city, and long one of Seattle’s favorite Olmsted Parks. The modest addition will create a new gallery and more space for our community to gather around art and culture, enjoy public programs, and host events. It will also improve circulation to meeting rooms, education spaces, library, and auditorium.

http://www.seattleartmuseum.org/inspire

The architect renderings are impressive and the primary issue in moi’s analysis is what this project would do to impact future exhibit. Clearly, the mechanical updates are needed and necessary to upgrade the types of exhibits which come from other museums and collectors worried about the delicate nature of some artifacts. An huge unanswered question is whether more items in the permanent collection will see the light of day.

Dr. Wilda gives a cautious thumbs up to the renovation.

Here is the 2007 Fiscal Note:

Form revised October 26, 2007

FISCAL NOTE FOR CAPITAL PROJECTS ONLY

 

Department: Contact Person/Phone: DOF Analyst/Phone:
Department of Parks and Recreation Kevin Stoops / 684-7053

 

Jan Oscherwitz / 684-8510

 

Legislation Title:
 AN ORDINANCE related to the Seattle Art Museum, authorizing the execution of an agreement  between the Seattle Department of Parks and Recreation and the Seattle Art Museum, concerning their roles in the planning and design of the restoration of the Seattle Asian Art Museum in Volunteer Park, modifying the City’s obligations under the Construction and Finance Agreement between the said parties for work on public park property associated with Olympic Sculpture Park, and amending the Seattle Department of Parks and Recreation 2007 Adopted Budget, including the 2007-2012 Capital Improvement Program, by modifying appropriations to various budget control levels.

 

Summary and background of the Legislation:

 

This proposed legislation authorizes the Superintendent of the Department of Parks and Recreation to execute an agreement between the City of Seattle (City) and the Seattle Art Museum (SAM) for designing the restoration of the Seattle Asian Art Museum (SAAM) in Volunteer Park.  This agreement allows SAM to serve as the City’s agent in restoration of SAAM through the permitting process.  It also modifies the City’s obligations under the Construction and Finance Agreement between the City and SAM for work on public park property associated with Olympic Sculpture Park (OSP), and transfers appropriations from the OSP Projects to the SAAM Restoration project.

 

The City and SAM have had a long-term relationship and operating agreement regarding the museum building in Volunteer Park currently known at the Seattle Asian Art Museum (SAAM). As part of a 1931 agreement authorized by Ordinance 61998, SAM (formerly the Art Institute of Seattle) agreed to provide funds to build and operate the museum and the City agreed to fund utility costs and janitorial services and keep the facility in good repair.  The building was completed in 1933 at a cost of more than $250,000.  Additions were constructed at City and SAM expense in 1947, 1954, 1959, and again in 1969.  The agreement between the City and SAM was most recently amended in 1981 through Ordinance 109767.  In that agreement, the parties agreed to cooperate in assessing the need for capital improvements and in seeking City funding as well as public and private grants for those improvements.  In the last 20 years, the City has spent about $3.2 million on capital repairs and improvements to SAAM.

 

In 2006, SAM commissioned a study by LMN Architects, McKinstry Essention, Inc., and Sellen Construction that recommended replacing SAAM’s original 1933 boiler and related ductwork, adding a chiller plant and humidification and air handling systems to reduce energy costs, and making significant structural improvements to the building to address seismic concerns at an estimated cost of $23.2 million.  The Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) anticipates hiring a consultant to critique this work with funds provided through the 4th Quarter Supplemental Ordinance.

 

With the approval of this legislation and after completion of DPR’s technical review, SAM will continue design work on mutually agreed upon renovations and act as the City’s agent to secure permits and other regulatory approvals.  Funds from the work will come from a transfer of City money originally pledged to OSP.  SAM has recently been awarded $2 million of additional funds from the Kreielsheimer Remainder Foundation, freeing up City funds for use at SAAM.  The Board of Trustees of SAM has agreed to reduce the amount of City financial obligation for OSP by $2 million, conditioned on the City re-appropriating those funds for exclusive use in planning and pre-construction activities associated with the SAAM restoration project (see Attachment 1 – letter from SAM Board Chair, Jon Shirley).

 

This legislation does not commit the City or SAM to the construction of improvements at SAAM.  These will be negotiated in a future agreement and will be considered in future legislation or as part of a future budget process.

http://clerk.ci.seattle.wa.us/~clerkItems/fnote/116100.htm

Resources:

Seattle Residents Protest Asian Art Museum’s $45 Million Expansion Project                           http://artforum.com/news/id=63170

A brief history of the Seattle Art Museum                                                                                     http://www.seattlepi.com/ae/article/A-brief-history-of-the-Seattle-Art-Museum-1235822.php

Seattle Asian Art Museum Improvements                                                                               http://www.seattle.gov/parks/about-us/current-projects/seattle-asian-art-museum-improvements

Where information leads to Hope. © Dr. Wilda.com

Dr. Wilda says this about that ©

Blogs by Dr. Wilda:

COMMENTS FROM AN OLD FART©
http://drwildaoldfart.wordpress.com/

Dr. Wilda Reviews ©
http://drwildareviews.wordpress.com/

Dr.Wilda©                                                                                                                             https://drwilda.com/

Imperial College London study: Feeding babies egg and peanut may prevent food allergy, study suggests

25 Sep

More children seem to have peanut allergies. Ross Brenneman wrote in the Education Week article, How Peanuts Became Public Health Enemy #1:

Researchers aren’t sure why, but over the past several years, the number of children reported to have allergies has doubled, to 5 percent of children in the United States. Yet at the same time, in schools and elsewhere, allergies have drawn what some see as an oversized amount of attention. A new paper out of Princeton University explores why that may have happened.

Allergy attacks are awful. I’ve been there plenty of times. Eyes swollen shut, coughing, hacking, sneezing—and that’s just garden-variety pollen. But severe allergic reactions, also known as anaphylaxia, can cause death, even for the constantly vigilant. That’s why the U.S. House of Representatives voted unanimously last week in favor of a bill that would incentivize states, through a pre-existing grant program, to make sure their schools have a supply of epinephrine (usually an EpiPen) on hand, as well as staff members trained in using it…

One percent. That’s it. One estimate pegs it closer to 1.4 percent for children, but only .6 percent for adults. Either way, it’s small. Not all of those affected are seriously allergic, either. One percent isn’t nothing, but it’s not the kind of number that would suggest a strong cultural reaction, either.
Why, then, have peanut allergies become such a well-known public health menace? Maybe it’s partly from the mystery surrounding all allergies; scientists don’t know why allergies exist and why some people grow out of them. It’s also not clear how much an allergy attack may be exacerbated by asthma; the two often go hand in hand….
http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/rulesforengagement/2013/08/how_peanuts_became_public_health_enemy_number_one.html?intc=es

Kids With Food Allergies has some excellent resources.
http://www.kidswithfoodallergies.org/resourcespre.php?id=62&title=Peanut_allergy_avoidance_list&gclid=CJTC7sfLuLICFWdxQgodxHcAJQ

Kate Wighton wrote in Feeding babies egg and peanut may prevent food allergy:

Feeding babies egg and peanut may reduce their risk of developing an allergy to the foods, finds a new study.

In the research, which is the largest analysis of evidence on the effect of feeding allergenic foods to babies, scientists from Imperial College London analysed data from 146 studies. In total the studies involved more than 200,000 children.

The study, which was commissioned by the UK Food Standards Agency, also found feeding children peanut, between the ages of four and eleven months, may reduce risk of developing peanut allergy. In addition, the team analysed milk, fish (including shellfish), tree nuts (such as almonds) and wheat, but didn’t find enough evidence to show introducing these foods at a young age reduces allergy risk.

The research is published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Although previous studies have found feeding children peanut and egg may reduce allergy risk, other studies have found no effect.

Dr Robert Boyle, lead author of the research from the Department of Medicine at Imperial, said: “This new analysis pools all existing data, and suggests introducing egg and peanut at an early age may prevent the development of egg and peanut allergy, the two most common childhood food allergies.

“Until now we have not been advising parents to give these foods to young babies, and have even advised parents to delay giving allergenic foods such as egg, peanut, fish and wheat to their infant.”

Allergies to foods, such as nuts, egg, milk or wheat, affect around one in 20 children in the UK. They are caused by the immune system malfunctioning and over-reacting to these harmless foods. This triggers symptoms such as rashes, swelling, vomiting and wheezing.

“The number of children diagnosed with food allergies is thought to be on the rise”, added Dr Vanessa Garcia-Larsen, a co-author on the study from the National Heart and Lung Institute at Imperial. “There are indications that food allergies in children have become much more common over the last 30 years.

The number of patients coming into our clinics has increased year-on-year, and allergy clinics across the country have seen the same pattern.”

She added that the reasons behind this rise are still unclear – doctors may be better at recognising food allergy, or there may be environmental factors involved.

In the new study, called a meta-analysis, the team initially analysed 16,289 research papers on allergies and other immune system problems. Out of these, 146 were used for data analysis of when to feed babies allergenic foods such as egg, peanut, wheat and fish.

The results showed that children who started eating egg between the ages of four and six months had a 40 per cent reduced risk of egg allergy compared to children who tried egg later in life.

Children who ate peanut between the ages of four and eleven months had a 70 per cent reduced peanut allergy risk compared to children who ate the food at a later stage. However, the authors cautioned that these percentages are estimates based on a small number of studies……                                                                   http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/newssummary/news_20-9-2016-14-46-0

Citation:

Feeding babies egg and peanut may prevent food allergy, study suggests

Date:        September 20, 2016

Source:    Imperial College London

Summary:

Feeding babies egg and peanut may reduce their risk of developing an allergy to the foods, finds a new study.

Journal Reference:

  1. Despo Ierodiakonou et al. Timing of Allergenic Food Introduction to the Infant Diet and Risk of Allergic or Autoimmune DiseaseA Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA, 2016 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2016.12623

Here is the citation from the Journal of the American Medical Association:

September 20, 2016, Vol 316, No. 11 >

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Original Investigation|September 20, 2016

Timing of Allergenic Food Introduction to the Infant Diet and Risk of Allergic or Autoimmune Disease A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Despo Ierodiakonou, MD, PhD1,2; Vanessa Garcia-Larsen, PhD2; Andrew Logan, PhD1; Annabel Groome, BSc1; Sergio Cunha, MD2; Jennifer Chivinge, BSc1; Zoe Robinson, BSc1; Natalie Geoghegan, BSc1; Katharine Jarrold, BSc1; Tim Reeves, BSc2; Nara Tagiyeva-Milne, PhD3; Ulugbek Nurmatov, MD, PhD4; Marialena Trivella, DPhil5; Jo Leonardi-Bee, PhD6; Robert J. Boyle, MD, PhD1

[+] Author Affiliations

JAMA. 2016;316(11):1181-1192. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.12623.

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Article

Figures

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Supplemental Content

References

CME

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT | INTRODUCTION | METHODS AND LITERATURE SEARCH | RESULTS | DISCUSSION | CONCLUSIONS | ARTICLE INFORMATION | REFERENCES

Importance  Timing of introduction of allergenic foods to the infant diet may influence the risk of allergic or autoimmune disease, but the evidence for this has not been comprehensively synthesized.

Objective  To systematically review and meta-analyze evidence that timing of allergenic food introduction during infancy influences risk of allergic or autoimmune disease.

Data Sources  MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and LILACS databases were searched between January 1946 and March 2016.

Study Selection  Intervention trials and observational studies that evaluated timing of allergenic food introduction during the first year of life and reported allergic or autoimmune disease or allergic sensitization were included.

Data Extraction and Synthesis  Data were extracted in duplicate and synthesized for meta-analysis using generic inverse variance or Mantel-Haenszel methods with a random-effects model. GRADE was used to assess the certainty of evidence.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Wheeze, eczema, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, allergic sensitization, type 1 diabetes mellitus, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune thyroid disease, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

Results  Of 16 289 original titles screened, data were extracted from 204 titles reporting 146 studies. There was moderate-certainty evidence from 5 trials (1915 participants) that early egg introduction at 4 to 6 months was associated with reduced egg allergy (risk ratio [RR], 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36-0.87; I2 = 36%; P = .009). Absolute risk reduction for a population with 5.4% incidence of egg allergy was 24 cases (95% CI, 7-35 cases) per 1000 population. There was moderate-certainty evidence from 2 trials (1550 participants) that early peanut introduction at 4 to 11 months was associated with reduced peanut allergy (RR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.74; I2 = 66%; P = .009). Absolute risk reduction for a population with 2.5% incidence of peanut allergy was 18 cases (95% CI, 6-22 cases) per 1000 population. Certainty of evidence was downgraded because of imprecision of effect estimates and indirectness of the populations and interventions studied. Timing of egg or peanut introduction was not associated with risk of allergy to other foods. There was low- to very low-certainty evidence that early fish introduction was associated with reduced allergic sensitization and rhinitis. There was high-certainty evidence that timing of gluten introduction was not associated with celiac disease risk, and timing of allergenic food introduction was not associated with other outcomes.

Conclusions and Relevance  In this systematic review, early egg or peanut introduction to the infant diet was associated with lower risk of developing egg or peanut allergy. These findings must be considered in the context of limitations in the primary studies.                                                                                                     http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2553447

A physical examination is important for children to make sure that there are no health problems. The University of Arizona Department of Pediatrics has an excellent article which describes Pediatric History and Physical Examination http://www.peds.arizona.edu/medstudents/Physicalexamination.asp The article goes on to describe how the physical examination is conducted and what observations and tests are part of the examination. The Cincinnati Children’s Hospital describes the Process of the Physical Examination http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/p/exam/
If children have allergies, parents must work with their schools to prepare a allergy health plan. See, Journal of American Medical Association study: Consumption of nuts by pregnant woman may reduce nut allergies in their children https://drwilda.com/tag/peanut-allergy/

Resources:

Micheal Borella’s Chicago-Kent Law Review article, Food Allergies In Public Schools: Toward A Model Code
http://www.cklawreview.com/wp-content/uploads/vol85no2/Borella.pdf

USDA’s Accomodating Children With Special Dietary Needs
http://www.k12.wa.us/ChildNutrition/pubdocs/SpecialDietaryNeeds.PDF

Child and Teen Checkup Fact Sheet
http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/fh/mch/ctc/factsheets.html

Video: What to Expect From A Child’s Physical Exam

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Blogs by Dr. Wilda:

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Mayo Clinic study: Suicide attempt a stronger predictor of completed suicide than previously thought

24 Sep

People of all ages may have feelings of profound sadness, loss, and depression. There is no one on earth, despite what the ads attempt to portray, who lives a perfect life. Every life has flaws and blemishes; it is just that some cope better than others. For every person who lives to a ripe old age, during the course of that life they may encounter all types of loss from loss of a loved one through death, divorce or desertion, loss of job, financial reverses, illness, dealing with A-holes and twits, plagues, pestilence, and whatever curse can be thrown at a person. The key is that they lived THROUGH whatever challenges they faced AT THAT MOMENT IN TIME. Woody Allen said something like “90% of life is simply showing up.” Let moi add a corollary, one of the prime elements of a happy life is to realize that whatever moment you are now in, it will not last forever and that includes moments of great challenge. A person does not have to be religious to appreciate the story of Job. The end of the story is that Job is restored. He had to endure much before the final victory, though.

Science Daily reported in Suicide attempt a stronger predictor of completed suicide than previously thought:

While a prior history of suicide attempt is one of the strongest predictors of completed suicide, a Mayo Clinic study finds it is more lethal than previously known.

Researchers find that suicide risk was nearly 60 percent higher than previously reported when based on a population-based cohort focusing on individuals making first lifetime attempts and including those whose first attempts were fatal. This risk was dramatically higher for attempts using firearms. The population sample was identified through the Rochester Epidemiology Project.

“We hoped to address the shortcomings of earlier studies by including two groups previously overlooked by other studies,” says J. Michael Bostwick, M.D., a psychiatrist on Mayo Clinic’s Rochester campus and the lead author of the study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry. “Our study enrolled individuals whose first-ever suicide attempt presented to medical attention. Not only did we include those who survived this initial attempt, but we also included those who died on their first attempt and ended up on the coroner’s slab rather than in the emergency room. These are large groups that have been routinely ignored in calculation of risk.” Since suicide is one of the 10 most common causes of death in the U.S., it is a major public health concern. The study found that nearly 60 percent of people who attempted suicide died on their first attempt….                                                                                                                                https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160912161259.htm

Citation:

Suicide attempt a stronger predictor of completed suicide than previously thought

Date:         September 12, 2016

Source:     Mayo Clinic

Summary:

While a prior history of suicide attempt is one of the strongest predictors of completed suicide, a new study finds it is more lethal than previously known.

Journal Reference:

  1. J. Michael Bostwick, Chaitanya Pabbati, Jennifer R. Geske, Alastair J. McKean. Suicide Attempt as a Risk Factor for Completed Suicide: Even More Lethal Than We Knew. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2016; appi.ajp.2016.1 DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15070854

Here is the press release from the Mayo Clinic:

  • By Duska Anastasijevic

Suicide attempt a stronger predictor of completed suicide than previously thought

September 12, 2016

ROCHESTER, Minn. — While a prior history of suicide attempt is one of the strongest predictors of completed suicide, a Mayo Clinic study finds it is more lethal than previously known.

Researchers find that suicide risk was nearly 60 percent higher than previously reported when based on a population-based cohort focusing on individuals making first lifetime attempts and including those whose first attempts were fatal. This risk was dramatically higher for attempts using firearms. The population sample was identified through the Rochester Epidemiology Project.

“We hoped to address the shortcomings of earlier studies by including two groups previously overlooked by other studies,” says J. Michael Bostwick, M.D., a psychiatrist on Mayo Clinic’s Rochester campus and the lead author of the study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry. “Our study enrolled individuals whose first-ever suicide attempt presented to medical attention. Not only did we include those who survived this initial attempt, but we also included those who died on their first attempt and ended up on the coroner’s slab rather than in the emergency room. These are large groups that have been routinely ignored in calculation of risk.”

Since suicide is one of the 10 most common causes of death in the U.S., it is a major public health concern. The study found that nearly 60 percent of people who attempted suicide died on their first attempt.

“Almost no other study in the literature includes individuals who die on that first attempt,” Dr. Bostwick adds. “A large part of the reason that such a high proportion of the total suicides occurred on first attempt can be attributed to firearm usage. The results show that it is a 140 time more likely for firearms to cause suicide, compared to all other methods. That means nearly three-fourths of all deaths at first suicide attempt were caused by using firearms. This shows that guns are, unfortunately, but not surprisingly, remarkably effective.”

The study also revealed that the male-female ratio was higher (1.7-to-1) among those making their attempts than what other studies previously purported. Older age in men also is associated with higher suicide risk. Nearly one-third of men over 65 in the study killed themselves.

MEDIA CONTACT: Duska Anastasijevic, Mayo Clinic Public Affairs, 507-284-5005, newsbureau@mayo.edu

The Rochester Epidemiology Project diagnostic index was searched electronically to identify 1,490 Olmsted County residents whose first suicide attempt came to medical attention between Jan. 1, 1986, and Dec. 31, 2007. The study included 555 males and 935 females followed for three to 25 years.

While the study confirmed previous findings that the risk decreased in survivors given a follow-up psychiatry appointment, the vast majority of survivors, irrespective of gender, killed themselves within a year after the index attempt. This underscores how important it is that survivors have psychiatric follow-up scheduled after the first attempt and how the first year following a suicide attempt is a critical window for a repeat fatal attempt.

Other authors include: Alastair J. McKean, M.D. and Jennifer R. Geske, M.S., of Mayo Clinic, and Chaitanya Pabbati, M.D., Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego;

###

About Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit organization committed to medical research and education, and providing expert, whole-person care to everyone who needs healing. For more information, visit http://www.mayoclinic.org/about-mayo-clinic or http://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/.

What Should You Do if You Know Someone Who Thinking About Suicide?

If you are thinking of suicide or you know someone who is thinking about suicide, GET HELP, NOW!!!! The Suicide Prevention Resource Center http://www.sprc.org/basics/roles-suicide-prevention has some excellent advice about suicide prevention http://www.sprc.org/basics/roles-suicide-prevention

Resources:

Suicide Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pub/youth_suicide.html

Teen Suicide Overview
http://www.teensuicidestatistics.com/

Teen’s Health’s Suicide
http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_mind/feeling_sad/suicide.html

American Academy of Adolescent Psychiatry http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Teen_Suicide_10.aspx

Suicide Prevention Resource Center
http://www.sprc.org/basics/roles-suicide-prevention

Teen Depression
http://helpguide.org/mental/depression_teen.htm

Jared Story.Com
http://www.jaredstory.com/teen_epidemic.html

CNN Report about suicide                                                                                                     http://www.cnn.com/2009/LIVING/10/20/lia.latina.suicides/index.html

American Foundation for Suicide Prevention
http://www.afsp.org This group is dedicated to advancing the knowledge of suicide and the ability to prevent it.

A\VE – Suicide Awareness\Voices of Education
http://www.save.org SA\VE offers information on suicide prevention. Call (800) SUICIDE

About.Com’s Depression In Young Children                                                                http://depression.about.com/od/child/Young_Children.htm

Psych Central’s Depression In Young Children                                          http://depression.about.com/od/child/Young_Children.htm

Psychiatric News’ Study Helps Pinpoint Children With Depression
http://psychnews.psychiatryonline.org/newsarticle.aspx?articleid=106034

Family Doctor’s What Is Depression?
http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/depression.html

WebMD’s Depression In Children
http://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/depression-children

Healthline’s Is Your Child Depressed?
http://www.healthline.com/hlvideo-5min/how-to-help-your-child-through-depression-517095449

Medicine.Net’s Depression In Children                                                                http://www.onhealth.com/depression_in_children/article.htm

If you or your child needs help for depression or another illness, then go to a reputable medical provider. There is nothing wrong with taking the steps necessary to get well.

Where information leads to Hope. © Dr. Wilda.com

Dr. Wilda says this about that ©

Blogs by Dr. Wilda:

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Case Western Reserve University study: Fungus in humans identified as key factor in Crohn’s disease

22 Sep

Heathline describes Crohn’s disease:

Crohn’s disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in which an abnormal immune system response causes chronic inflammation in the digestive tract. Crohn’s is often confused with ulcerative colitis, a similar IBD that only affects the large intestine.

According to the Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America, about 1.4 million Americans have Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. Of those, about 700,000 have Crohn’s. In the years between 1992 and 2004, there was a 74 percent increase in doctor’s office visits due to Crohn’s disease. In 2004, Crohn’s disease was the cause of 57,000 hospitalizations.

Who Gets Crohn’s Disease

Anyone can develop Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. However, IBDs are usually diagnosed in young adults between the ages of 15 and 30. Children are twice as likely to be diagnosed with Crohn’s as ulcerative colitis. Boys develop IBDs at a slightly higher rate than girls.

In the United States, males and females get Crohn’s at about the same rate. Caucasians and Ashkenazi Jews develop Crohn’s at a higher rate than other ethnicities. The highest rates occur in Canada. In general, people who live in higher latitudes are more likely to develop Crohn’s than those in lower latitudes. When relocating from a low-latitude to a high-latitude region, the risk of developing Crohn’s matches that of the high-latitude region within a single generation.

In Crohn’s disease, the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy bacteria in the GI tract. Chronic inflammation causes thickening of the intestinal wall, which triggers the symptoms. The exact reason this occurs is not clear, but there is a hereditary factor. According to the Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America, between 5 and 20 percent of people who have an IBD have a first-degree relative with one. The risk is higher in Crohn’s than ulcerative colitis, and higher when both parents are affected.

There may also be an environmental element. Rates of Crohn’s are higher in developed countries, urban areas, and northern climates. Stress and diet may worsen Crohn’s, but neither is thought to cause the disease. It’s likely that Crohn’s is caused by a combination of factors….      http://www.healthline.com/health/crohns-disease/facts-statistics-infographic#2

See, Epidemiology of the IBD          http://www.cdc.gov/ibd/ibd-epidemiology.htm

Bret Lashner, MD of the Cleveland Clinic describes the symptoms of Crohn’s disease:

Signs and Symptoms

Patients with new-onset Crohn’s disease usually present with inflammatory-type symptoms, with such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, stomatitis, anal fissures, and weight loss. The abdominal pain usually is insidious, is in the right lower quadrant, occurs soon after eating, and may be associated with a tender inflammatory mass. When the inflammatory process affects the large bowel, there may be hematochezia, but bleeding is much less common in Crohn’s disease patients than in ulcerative colitis patients. Extra-intestinal manifesations of disease, such as peripheral arthritis, axial arthritis, and erythema nodosum also may be presenting features. Cigarette smoking is seen much more commonly in Crohn’s disease patients (upwards of 50% of patients) compared to an unaffected adult population.

As Crohn’s disease becomes more advanced, strictures and fistulas may develop (Figure 1)4. Patients with strictures often present the obstructive symptoms, such as severe abdominal pain, distension, bloating, and vomiting. Patients who develop fistulas, or perforating-type complications, may present with perianal fistulas and abscesses, ventral wall drainage, pneumaturia, or intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal abscesses. Children with extensive small bowel involvement with their Crohn’s disease can present with growth retardation and delayed puberty. Interestingly, nutritional support can reverse some of manifestations of growth retardation….              http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/gastroenterology/crohns-disease/

See, Crohn’s Disease            https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/crohns-disease/Pages/overview.aspx

Science Daily reported in Fungus in humans identified for first time as key factor in Crohn’s disease:

A Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine-led team of international researchers has for the first time identified a fungus as a key factor in the development of Crohn’s disease. The researchers also linked a new bacterium to the previous bacteria associated with Crohn’s. The groundbreaking findings, published on September 20th in mBio, could lead to potential new treatments and ultimately, cures for the debilitating inflammatory bowel disease, which causes severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue….

Both bacteria and fungi are microorganisms — infinitesimal forms of life that can only be seen with a microscope. Fungi are eukaryotes: organism whose cells contain a nucleus; they are closer to humans than bacteria, which are prokaryotes: single-celled forms of life with no nucleus. Collectively, the fungal community that inhabits the human body is known as the mycobiome, while the bacteria are called the bacteriome. (Fungi and bacteria are present throughout the body; previously Ghannoum had found that people harbor between nine and 23 fungal species in their mouths.)

The researchers assessed the mycobiome and bacteriome of patients with Crohn’s disease and their Crohn’s-free first degree relatives in nine families in northern France and Belgium, and in Crohn’s-free individuals from four families living in the same geographic area. Specifically, they analyzed fecal samples of 20 Crohn’s and 28 Crohn’s-free patients from nine families and of 21 Crohn’s-free patients of four families. The researchers found strong fungal-bacterial interactions in those with Crohn’s disease: two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens) and one fungus (Candida tropicalis) moved in lock step. The presence of all three in the sick family members was significantly higher compared to their healthy relatives, suggesting that the bacteria and fungus interact in the intestines. Additionally, test-tube research by the Ghannoum-led team found that the three work together (with the E. coli cells fusing to the fungal cells and S. marcescens forming a bridge connecting the microbes) to produce a biofilm — a thin, slimy layer of microorganisms found in the body that adheres to, among other sites, a portion of the intestines — which can prompt inflammation that results in the symptoms of Crohn’s disease.

This is first time any fungus has been linked to Crohn’s in humans; previously it was only found in mice with the disease. The study is also the first to include S. marcescens in the Crohn’s-linked bacteriome. Additionally, the researchers found that the presence of beneficial bacteria was significantly lower in the Crohn’s patients, corroborating previous research findings….                     https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160920151435.htm

Citation:

Fungus in humans identified for first time as key factor in Crohn’s disease

Date:         September 20, 2016

Source:     Case Western Reserve University

Summary:

A fungus has been identified as a key factor in the development of Crohn’s disease, an international team of researchers has identified for the first time.

Journal Reference:

  1. G. Hoarau, P. K. Mukherjee, C. Gower-Rousseau, C. Hager, J. Chandra, M. A. Retuerto, C. Neut, S. Vermeire, J. Clemente, J. F. Colombel, H. Fujioka, D. Poulain, B. Sendid and M. A. Ghannoum. Bacteriome and Mycobiome Interactions Underscore Microbial Dysbiosis in Familial Crohn’s Disease. mBio, September 2016 DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01250-16

Here is the press release from Case Western Reserve School of Medicine:

Case Western Reserve-Led International Team Identifies Fungus in Humans for First Time as Key Factor in Crohn’s Disease

Novel Finding Opens Door for Potential Treatment

September 20, 2016

A Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine-led team of international researchers has for the first time identified a fungus as a key factor in the development of Crohn’s disease. The researchers also linked a new bacterium to the previous bacteria associated with Crohn’s. The groundbreaking findings, published on September 20th in mBio, could lead to potential new treatments and ultimately, cures for the debilitating inflammatory bowel disease, which causes severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue.

“We already know that bacteria, in addition to genetic and dietary factors, play a major role in causing Crohn’s disease,” said the study’s senior and corresponding author, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, PhD, professor and director of the Center for Medical Mycology at Case Western Reserve and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center “Essentially, patients with Crohn’s have abnormal immune responses to these bacteria, which inhabit the intestines of all people. While most researchers focus their investigations on these bacteria, few have examined the role of fungi, which are also present in everyone’s intestines. Our study adds significant new information to understanding why some people develop Crohn’s disease. Equally important, it can result in a new generation of treatments, including medications and probiotics, which hold the potential for making qualitative and quantitative differences in the lives of people suffering from Crohn’s.”

Both bacteria and fungi are microorganisms – infinitesimal forms of life that can only be seen with a microscope. Fungi are eukaryotes: organism whose cells contain a nucleus; they are closer to humans than bacteria, which are prokaryotes: single-celled forms of life with no nucleus. Collectively, the fungal community that inhabits the human body is known as the mycobiome, while the bacteria are called the bacteriome. (Fungi and bacteria are present throughout the body; previously Ghannoum had found that people harbor between nine and 23 fungal species in their mouths.)

The researchers assessed the mycobiome and bacteriome of patients with Crohn’s disease and their Crohn’s-free first degree relatives in nine families in northern France and Belgium, and in Crohn’s-free individuals from four families living in the same geographic area. Specifically, they analyzed fecal samples of 20 Crohn’s and 28 Crohn’s-free patients from nine families and of 21 Crohn’s-free patients of four families. The researchers found strong fungal-bacterial interactions in those with Crohn’s disease: two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens) and one fungus (Candida tropicalis) moved in lock step. The presence of all three in the sick family members was significantly higher compared to their healthy relatives, suggesting that the bacteria and fungus interact in the intestines. Additionally, test-tube research by the Ghannoum-led team found that the three work together (with the E. coli cells fusing to the fungal cells and S. marcescens forming a bridge connecting the microbes) to produce a biofilm – a thin, slimy layer of microorganisms found in the body that adheres to, among other sites, a portion of the intestines – which can prompt inflammation that results in the symptoms of Crohn’s disease.

This is first time any fungus has been linked to Crohn’s in humans; previously it was only found in mice with the disease. The study is also the first to include S. marcescens in the Crohn’s-linked bacteriome. Additionally, the researchers found that the presence of beneficial bacteria was significantly lower in the Crohn’s patients, corroborating previous research findings.

“Among hundreds of bacterial and fungal species inhabiting the intestines, it is telling that the three we identified were so highly correlated in Crohn’s patients,” said Ghannoum. “Furthermore, we found strong similarities in what may be called the ‘gut profiles’ of the Crohn’s-affected families, which were strikingly different from the Crohn’s-free families. We have to be careful, though, and not solely attribute Crohn’s disease to the bacterial and fungal makeups of our intestines. For example, we know that family members also share diet and environment to significant degrees. Further research is needed to be even more specific in identifying precipitators and contributors of Crohn’s.”

In addition to Ghannoum, other Case Western Reserve University investigators equally contributing to the study are Pranab Mukherjee, Chris Hager, Jyotsna Chandra, Mauricio Retuerto, and Hisashi Fujioka. Other members of the study team are from France and Belgium, as well as the Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai in New York City.

###

The research was supported by National Institutes of Health grants R01DE024228 to MAG and PKM, RO1DE17846, the Oral HIV AIDS Research Alliance (OHARA, BRS-ACURE-S-11-000049-110229) to MAG and a Cleveland Digestive Diseases Research Core Center (DDRCC) Pilot and Feasibility project (supported by NIH/NIDDK P30 DK097948) to MAG, and R21EY021303 and R21AI074077 to PKM. Funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-2007-2013) under HEALTH-F2-2010-260338-ALLFUN, the Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique du Ministère des Affaires Sociales, de la Santé et de la Ville PHRC 1918, 2011 Candigène, France, to B.S. the UEG Research Prize 2009 to JFC

For more information about Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, please visit: http://case.edu/medicine.

About Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

Founded in 1843, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine is the largest medical research institution in Ohio and is among the nation’s top medical schools for research funding from the National Institutes of Health. The School of Medicine is recognized throughout the international medical community for outstanding achievements in teaching. The School’s innovative and pioneering Western Reserve2 curriculum interweaves four themes–research and scholarship, clinical mastery, leadership, and civic professionalism–to prepare students for the practice of evidence-based medicine in the rapidly changing health care environment of the 21st century. Nine Nobel Laureates have been affiliated with the School of Medicine.

Annually, the School of Medicine trains more than 800 MD and MD/PhD students and ranks in the top 25 among U.S. research-oriented medical schools as designated by U.S. News & World Report’s “Guide to Graduate Education.”

The School of Medicine’s primary affiliate is University Hospitals Case Medical Center and is additionally affiliated with MetroHealth Medical Center, the Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and the Cleveland Clinic, with which it established the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University in 2002. case.edu/medicine.

Media Contact(s):

Marc Kaplan
Associate Dean, Marketing and Communications
The School of Medicine
Case Western Reserve University
Office: 216-368-4692
Marc.Kaplan@case.edu

The Mayo Clinic offers the following advice:

Treatment for Crohn’s disease usually involves drug therapy or, in certain cases, surgery. There is currently no cure for the disease, and there is no one treatment that works for everyone. Doctors use one of two approaches to treatment — either “step-up,” which starts with milder drugs first, or “top-down,” which gives people stronger drugs earlier in the treatment process.

The goal of medical treatment is to reduce the inflammation that triggers your signs and symptoms. It is also to improve long-term prognosis by limiting complications. In the best cases, this may lead not only to symptom relief but also to long-term remission…..                                   http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/crohns-disease/basics/treatment/con-20032061

As with any medical condition, consult competent medical professionals.

Where information leads to Hope. © Dr. Wilda.com

Dr. Wilda says this about that ©

Blogs by Dr. Wilda:

COMMENTS FROM AN OLD FART©
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Dr. Wilda Reviews ©
http://drwildareviews.wordpress.com/

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City University of New York study: More underrepresented students obtain science degrees and pursue STEM, due to research mentoring

11 Sep

Many educators have long recognized that the impact of social class affects both education achievement and life chances after completion of education. There are two impacts from diversity, one is to broaden the life experience of the privileged and to raise the expectations of the disadvantaged. Social class matters in not only other societies, but this one as well.
A few years back, the New York Times did a series about social class in America. That series is still relevant. Janny Scott and David Leonhardt’s overview, Shadowy Lines That Still Divide describes the challenges faced by schools trying to overcome the disparity in education. The complete series can be found at Social Class http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/15/national/class/OVERVIEW-FINAL.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 and http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/15/national/class/OVERVIEW-FINAL.html   Jason DeParle reported in the New York Times article, For Poor Strivers, Leap to College Often Ends in a Hard Fall http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/23/education/poor-students-struggle-as-class-plays-a-greater-role-in-success.html?hpw&_r=0

Social class and background may not only affect an individual student’s choice of major, but their completion of college in that major. Nick De Santis reported in the Chronicle of Higher Education article, Report Examines College Students’ Attrition From STEM Majors:

Twenty-eight percent of bachelor’s-degree students who began their postsecondary education in the 2003-4 academic year chose a major in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics at some point within six years, but 48 percent of students who entered those fields during that period had left them by the spring of 2009, according to a report released on Tuesday by the National Center for Education Statistics, the U.S. Education Department’s statistical arm.
The report, which addresses attrition from the so-called STEM fields, also includes information on students pursuing associate degrees. It says that 20 percent of such students had chosen a STEM major within that six-year period and notes that 69 percent of them had left the STEM fields by the spring of 2009.
Of the students who left STEM fields, the report says, roughly half switched their major to a non-STEM field, and the rest left college without earning a degree or certificate. The report notes that fields such as the humanities and education experienced higher levels of attrition than did the STEM disciplines.
The report identifies several factors associated with a higher probability of switching out of STEM majors, such as taking lighter STEM course loads or less-challenging math classes in the first year, and earning lower grades in STEM courses than in others….
http://chronicle.com/blogs/ticker/report-examines-college-students-attrition-from-stem-majors/69705?cid=pm&utm_source=pm&utm_medium=en

A Cornell University study found that should women remain in STEM programs they might be preferred for tenure-track faculty positions.  http://www.usnews.com/news/stem-solutions/articles/2015/04/13/report-faculty-prefer-women-for-tenure-track-stem-positions

Science Daily reported in More underrepresented students obtain science degrees and pursue STEM, due to research mentoring:

Graduation rates among science majors at a large minority-serving college have nearly tripled since the implementation of an undergraduate research experience (URE) program ten years ago. A new study in the Journal of Research in Science Teaching indicates that undergraduates who participate in mentored research not only graduate more often with science degrees, but also attend graduate school and pursue STEM careers at higher rates.

Established in 2006, John Jay College’s Program for Research Initiatives in Science and Math (PRISM) is an URE program that enables undergraduates to carry out guided scientific research. Although undergraduate STEM research has been de rigueur at major research universities, public Minority- and Hispanic-serving institutions like John Jay have historically struggled to provide their students with equivalent experiences and to keep them competitive with their majority peers. Tailored to students and faculty, PRISM has benefited both participants and the college. An extensive case study revealed that graduation rates from science have nearly tripled since PRISM’s inception, that the number of students pursuing graduate degrees has grown nearly ten fold, and that students receive author credit on journal articles more often than at other institutions. Furthermore, John Jay has seen a growth in both external funding and in full-time faculty focused on STEM research…                                                                                     https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160908120344.htm

Citation:

More underrepresented students obtain science degrees and pursue STEM, due to research mentoring

Date:          September 8, 2016

Source:      The City University of New York

Summary:

A new study indicates that undergraduates who participate in mentored research not only graduate more often with science degrees, but also attend graduate school and pursue STEM careers at higher rates.

Journal Reference:

  1. Anthony Carpi, Darcy M. Ronan, Heather M. Falconer, Nathan H. Lents. Cultivating minority scientists: Undergraduate research increases self-efficacy and career ambitions for underrepresented students in STEM. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2016; DOI: 10.1002/tea.21341

Here is the press release from City University of New York:

Public Release: 8-Sep-2016

More underrepresented students obtain science degrees & pursue STEM, due to research mentoring

The City University of New York

New York, NY – Graduation rates among science majors at a large minority-serving college have nearly tripled since the implementation of an undergraduate research experience (URE) program ten years ago. A new study in the Journal of Research in Science Teaching indicates that undergraduates who participate in mentored research not only graduate more often with science degrees, but also attend graduate school and pursue STEM careers at higher rates.

Established in 2006, John Jay College’s Program for Research Initiatives in Science and Math (PRISM) is an URE program that enables undergraduates to carry out guided scientific research. Although undergraduate STEM research has been de rigueur at major research universities, public Minority- and Hispanic-serving institutions like John Jay have historically struggled to provide their students with equivalent experiences and to keep them competitive with their majority peers. Tailored to students and faculty, PRISM has benefited both participants and the college. An extensive case study revealed that graduation rates from science have nearly tripled since PRISM’s inception, that the number of students pursuing graduate degrees has grown nearly ten fold, and that students receive author credit on journal articles more often than at other institutions. Furthermore, John Jay has seen a growth in both external funding and in full-time faculty focused on STEM research.

To reach these conclusions, researchers made use of institutional and program data collected over three years, interviews and focus groups, and surveys. Notably, the study found that PRISM positively affected students’ decisions to pursue graduate degrees and STEM careers, impacting Black and Hispanic participants more significantly than their White and Asian counterparts. Lead author Anthony Carpi, Professor of Environmental Toxicology and Dean of Research at John Jay College, City University of New York, said, “We were delighted to see the impact that undergraduate research experiences have on our students’ career plans. John Jay has a robust and diverse pipeline of students moving on to post-graduate professional careers in STEM fields, and it is exciting to see these students becoming skilled scientists.”

Norman Lederman, Distinguished Professor of Mathematics and Science at the Illinois Institute of Technology, said, “It has long been known that actual research experiences in science and mathematics impact students’ attitudes toward science and mathematics as well as the STEM career aspirations of pre-college and college students. It has also been known that under represented students tend to select themselves out of STEM fields for a variety of social and cultural reasons. The PRISM program at John Jay College has produced extremely compelling results and it serves as an impressive model for other universities, especially those that do not initially have high-level research profiles.”

This study represents the initial stage of a multi-pronged evaluation of John Jay’s URE program with subsequent phases focusing on quantitative comparisons. For now, PRISM appears not only to redress some of the education and employment inequities faced by minority students, but also to serve as an example to other institutions that wish to send more underrepresented students into the STEM workforce.

###

The City University of New York is the nation’s leading urban public university. Founded in New York City in 1847, the University comprises 24 institutions: 11 senior colleges, seven community colleges, and other professional schools. The University serves nearly 275,000 degree-credit students and 218,083 adult, continuing and professional education students.

For more information, please contact Shante Brooker.

The Cornell study points to the need for good science education to prepare a diverse population for opportunities. K-12 education must not only prepare students by teaching basic skills, but they must prepare students for training after high school, either college or vocational. There should not only be a solid education foundation established in K-12, but there must be more accurate evaluation of whether individual students are “college ready.”

Related:

Girls and math phobia
https://drwilda.com/2012/01/20/girls-and-math-phobia/

Study: Gender behavior differences lead to higher grades for girls

https://drwilda.com/2013/01/07/study-gender-behavior-differences-lead-to-higher-grades-for-girls/

University of Missouri study: Counting ability predicts future math ability of preschoolers https://drwilda.com/2012/11/15/university-of-missouri-study-counting-ability-predicts-future-math-ability-of-preschoolers/

Is an individualized program more effective in math learning?
https://drwilda.com/2012/10/10/is-an-individualized-program-more-effective-in-math-learning

Where information leads to Hope. © Dr. Wilda.com

Dr. Wilda says this about that ©

Blogs by Dr. Wilda:

COMMENTS FROM AN OLD FART©
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Dr. Wilda Reviews ©
http://drwildareviews.wordpress.com/

Dr. Wilda ©
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