Archive | March, 2016

Michigan State University study: Life expectancy of black males and black names, 1802-1970

27 Mar

Jenna Goudreau of Business Insider wrote in 13 surprising ways your name affects your success:

If your name is easy to pronounce, people will favor you more….

In a New York University study, researchers found that people with easier-to-pronounce names often have higher-status positions at work. One of the psychologists, Adam Alter, explains to Wired, “When we can process a piece of information more easily, when it’s easier to comprehend, we come to like it more.” In a further study, Alter also found that companies with simpler names and ticker symbols tended to perform better in the stock market.

If your name is common, you are more likely to be hired….

In a Marquette University study, the researchers found evidence to suggest that names that were viewed as the least unique were more likable. People with common names were more likely to be hired, and those with rare names were least likely to be hired. That means that the Jameses, Marys, Johns, and Patricias of the world are in luck.

Uncommon names are associated with juvenile delinquency….

A 2009 study at Shippensburg University suggested that there’s a strong relationship between the popularity of one’s first name and juvenile criminal behavior. Researchers found that, regardless of race, young people with unpopular names were more likely to engage in criminal activity. The findings obviously don’t show that the unusual names caused the behavior, but merely show a link between the two things. And the researchers have some theories about their findings. “Adolescents with unpopular names may be more prone to crime because they are treated differently by their peers, making it more difficult for them to form relationships,” they write in a statement from the journal’s publisher. “Juveniles with unpopular names may also act out because they … dislike their names.”

If you have a white-sounding name, you’re more likely to get hired….

In one study cited by The Atlantic, white-sounding names like Emily Walsh and Greg Baker got nearly 50% more callbacks than candidates with black-sounding names like Lakisha Washington and Jamal Jones. Researchers determined that having a white-sounding name is worth as much as eight years of work experience.

If your last name is closer to the beginning of the alphabet, you could get into a better school….

For a study published in the Economics of Education Review, researchers studied the relationship between the position in the alphabet of more than 90,000 Czech students’ last names and their admission chances at competitive schools. They found that even though students with last names that were low in the alphabet tended to get higher test scores overall, among the students who applied to universities and were on the margins of getting admitted or not, those with last names that were close to the top of the alphabet were more likely to be admitted.

If your last name is closer to the end of the alphabet, you’re more likely to be an impulse spender…

According to one study, people with last names such as Yardley or Zabar may be more susceptible to promotional strategies like limited-time offers. The authors speculate that spending your childhood at the end of the roll call may make you want to jump on offers before you miss the chance.

Using your middle initial makes people think you’re smarter and more competent….

According to research published in the European Journal of Social Psychology, using a middle initial increases people’s perceptions of your intellectual capacity and performance. In one study, students were asked to rate an essay with one of four styles of author names. Not only did the authors with a middle initial receive top marks, but the one with the most initials, David F.P.R. Clark, received the best reviews.

You are more likely to work in a company that matches your initials….

Since we identify with our names, we prefer things that are similar to them. In a Ghent University study, researchers found that people are more likely to work for companies matching their own initials. For example, Brian Ingborg might work for Business Insider. The rarer the initials, the more likely people were to work for companies with names similar to their own.

If your name sounds noble, you are more likely to work in a high-ranking position….

In a European study, researchers studied German names and ranks within companies. Those with last names such as Kaiser (“emperor”) or König (“king”) were in more managerial positions than those with last names that referred to common occupations, such as Koch (“cook”) or Bauer (“farmer”). This could be the result of associative reasoning, a psychological theory describing a type of thinking in which people automatically link emotions and previous knowledge with similar words or phrases.

If you are a boy with a girl’s name, you could be more likely to be suspended from school….

For his 2005 study, University of Florida economics professor David Figlio studied a large Florida school district from 1996 to 2000 and found that boys with names most commonly given to girls misbehaved more in middle school and were more likely to disrupt their peers. He also found that their behavioral problems were linked with increased disciplinary problems and lower test scores.

If you are a woman with a gender-neutral name, you may be more likely to succeed in certain fields….

According to The Atlantic, in male-dominated fields such as engineering and law, women with gender-neutral names may be more successful. One study found that women with “masculine names” like Leslie, Jan, or Cameron tended to be more successful in legal careers.

Men with shorter first names are overrepresented in the c-suite.

In 2011, LinkedIn analyzed more than 100 million user profiles to find out which names are most associated with the CEO position. The most common names for men were short, often one-syllable names like Bob, Jack, and Bruce. A name specialist speculates that men in power may use nicknames to offer a sense of friendliness and openness.

Women at the top are more likely to use their full names….

In the same study, LinkedIn researchers found that the most common names of female CEOs include Deborah, Cynthia, and Carolyn. Unlike the men, women may use their full names in an attempt to project professionalism and gravitas, according to the report. …                                                http://www.businessinsider.com/how-your-name-affects-your-success-2015-8

A Michigan State University study finds that the names of Black males affect their life expectancy.

Science Daily reported in What’s in a name? In some cases, longer life:

Black men with historically distinctive black names such as Elijah and Moses lived a year longer, on average, than other black men, according to new research examining 3 million death certificates from 1802 to 1970.

The study, co-authored by Michigan State University economist Lisa D. Cook, is one of the first to find benefits of having a racially distinctive name. Other studies that looked at current black names such as Jamal and Lakisha suggest that having these modern-day monikers leads to discrimination.

“A number of studies indicate that modern black names can act as a burden, whereas our findings show that historical black names conveyed a large advantage over a person’s lifetime,” said Cook, associate professor in MSU’s Department of Economics and James Madison College.

Using historical death certificate data from four states — Alabama, Illinois, Missouri and North Carolina — the researchers previously established the existence of a set of distinctive names given to black men, mainly in the early 20th century. The names range from Abraham to Booker to Isaac.

The current study examined mortality rates among men with those names. It found that having a distinctive black name added more than one year of life relative to other black males. The researchers ruled out socioeconomic and environmental factors such as single-parent households, education and occupation.

“A whole additional year on their lives, in mortality terms, is remarkable,” Cook said. “Even a third of a year is significant.”

Many of the distinctive names come from the Bible and possibly denote empowerment. Cook, who has five generations of Baptist ministers in her family, said one theory is that men with these Old Testament names may have been held to a higher standard in academic and other activities, even implicitly, and had stronger family, church or community ties. These stronger social networks could help a person weather negative events throughout life….              https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160326105659.htm

Citation:

What’s in a name? In some cases, longer life

Date:            March 26, 2016

Source:        Michigan State University

Summary:

Black men with historically distinctive black names such as Elijah and Moses lived a year longer, on average, than other black men, according to new research examining 3 million death certificates from 1802 to 1970.

Journal Reference:

  1. Lisa D. Cook, Trevon D. Logan, John M. Parman. The mortality consequences of distinctively black names. Explorations in Economic History, 2016; 59: 114 DOI: 10.1016/j.eeh.2015.10.001

Here is the press release from Michigan State University:

Top > Psychology > What’s in a Name? in… >

What’s in a Name? in Some Cases, Longer Life

Published: March 26, 2016.
Released by Michigan State University

EAST LANSING, Mich. — Black men with historically distinctive black names such as Elijah and Moses lived a year longer, on average, than other black men, according to new research examining 3 million death certificates from 1802 to 1970.

These are distinctive black names in the past and present. Credit: Michigan State University
This charts shows the life expectancy of black males and black names, 1802-1970. Credit: Michigan State University

The study, co-authored by Michigan State University economist Lisa D. Cook, is one of the first to find benefits of having a racially distinctive name. Other studies that looked at current black names such as Jamal and Lakisha suggest that having these modern-day monikers leads to discrimination.

“A number of studies indicate that modern black names can act as a burden, whereas our findings show that historical black names conveyed a large advantage over a person’s lifetime,” said Cook, associate professor in MSU’s Department of Economics and James Madison College.

Using historical death certificate data from four states – Alabama, Illinois, Missouri and North Carolina – the researchers previously established the existence of a set of distinctive names given to black men, mainly in the early 20th century. The names range from Abraham to Booker to Isaac.

The current study examined mortality rates among men with those names. It found that having a distinctive black name added more than one year of life relative to other black males. The researchers ruled out socioeconomic and environmental factors such as single-parent households, education and occupation.

“A whole additional year on their lives, in mortality terms, is remarkable,” Cook said. “Even a third of a year is significant.”

Many of the distinctive names come from the Bible and possibly denote empowerment. Cook, who has five generations of Baptist ministers in her family, said one theory is that men with these Old Testament names may have been held to a higher standard in academic and other activities, even implicitly, and had stronger family, church or community ties. These stronger social networks could help a person weather negative events throughout life.

“I think the teachers in these one-room schoolhouses – teachers who also taught Sunday school – probably placed implicit expectations on students with these distinctive names,” Cook said. “And I think that gave them a status that they otherwise would not have had.”

On the contrary, previous research has found that having distinctive modern names such as Tremayne and Tanisha has led to discrimination among job applicants, college students seeking mentors and researchers seeking federal funding. Researchers in the United States, Britain and elsewhere have studied the issue.

“When people see a name that’s foreign or strange to them in their profession, implicitly they shut down, as these studies have shown,” Cook said. “Then there is an extra layer of bias suggesting that this is possibly a female, poor or somehow unqualified candidate. Research has found that in the United States it’s associated with racial discrimination and in Britain it’s associated with class discrimination.”

The above story is based on materials provided by Michigan State University.

See, Top 20 ‘Whitest’ and ‘Blackest’ Names      http://abcnews.go.com/2020/top-20-whitest-blackest-names/story?id=2470131

Moi wrote in Black people MUST develop a culture of success: Michigan State revokes a football scholarship because of raunchy rap video.

The question must be asked, who is responsible for MY or YOUR life choices? Let’s get real, certain Asian cultures kick the collective butts of the rest of Americans. Why? It’s not rocket science. These cultures embrace success traits of hard work, respect for education, strong families, and a reverence for success and successful people. Contrast the culture of success with the norms of hip-hop and rap oppositional culture. See, Hip-hop’s Dangerous Values
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1107107/posts and Hip-Hop and rap represent destructive life choices: How low can this genre sink? https://drwilda.com/2013/05/01/hip-hop-and-rap-represent-destructive-life-choices-how-low-can-this-genre-sink/    Resources:

Culture of Success
http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/culture-success

How Do Asian Students Get to the Top of the Class?
http://www.greatschools.org/parenting/teaching-values/481-parenting-students-to-the-top.gs

Related:

Is there a model minority?
https://drwilda.com/2012/06/23/is-there-a-model-minority/

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University of California Santa Barbara study: Environmental intervention can raise general intelligence, but the effects aren’t permanent

20 Mar

Because of changes in family structure and the fact that many children are now being raised by single parents, who often lack the time or resources to care for them, we as a society must make children and education a priority, even in a time of lack. I know that many of the conservative persuasion will harp on about personal responsibility, yada, yada, yada. Moi promotes birth control and condoms, so don’t harp on that. Fact is children, didn’t ask to be born to any particular parent or set of parents.

Jonathan Cohn reported about an unprecedented experiment which occurred in Romanian orphanages in the New Republic article, The Two Year Window. There are very few experiments involving humans because of ethical considerations.

Nelson had traveled to Romania to take part in a cutting-edge experiment. It was ten years after the fall of the Communist dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu, whose scheme for increasing the country’s population through bans on birth control and abortion had filled state-run institutions with children their parents couldn’t support. Images from the orphanages had prompted an outpouring of international aid and a rush from parents around the world to adopt the children. But ten years later, the new government remained convinced that the institutions were a good idea—and was still warehousing at least 60,000 kids, some of them born after the old regime’s fall, in facilities where many received almost no meaningful human interaction. With backing from the MacArthur Foundation, and help from a sympathetic Romanian official, Nelson and colleagues from Harvard, Tulane, and the University of Maryland prevailed upon the government to allow them to remove some of the children from the orphanages and place them with foster families. Then, the researchers would observe how they fared over time in comparison with the children still in the orphanages. They would also track a third set of children, who were with their original parents, as a control group.

In the field of child development, this study—now known as the Bucharest Early Intervention Project—was nearly unprecedented. Most such research is performed on animals, because it would be unethical to expose human subjects to neglect or abuse. But here the investigators were taking a group of children out of danger. The orphanages, moreover, provided a sufficiently large sample of kids, all from the same place and all raised in the same miserable conditions. The only variable would be the removal from the institutions, allowing researchers to isolate the effects of neglect on the brain….

Drury, Nelson, and their collaborators are still learning about the orphans. But one upshot of their work is already clear. Childhood adversity can damage the brain as surely as inhaling toxic substances or absorbing a blow to the head can. And after the age of two, much of that damage can be difficult to repair, even for children who go on to receive the nurturing they were denied in their early years. This is a revelation with profound implication—and not just for the Romanian orphans.

APPROXIMATELY SEVEN MILLION American infants, toddlers, and preschoolers get care from somebody other than a relative, whether through organized day care centers or more informal arrangements, according to the Census Bureau. And much of that care is not very good. One widely cited study of child care in four states, by researchers in Colorado, found that only 8 percent of infant care centers were of “good” or “excellent” quality, while 40 percent were “poor.” The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development has found that three in four infant caregivers provide only minimal cognitive and language stimulation—and that more than half of young children in non-maternal care receive “only some” or “hardly any” positive caregiving. http://www.tnr.com/article/economy/magazine/97268/the-two-year-window?page=0,0&passthru=YzBlNDJmMmRkZTliNDgwZDY4MDhhYmIwMjYyYzhlMjg

Because the ranks of poor children are growing in the U.S., this study portends some grave challenges not only for particular children, but this society and this country. Adequate early learning opportunities and adequate early parenting is essential for proper development in children.

Science Daily reported in IQ and fade-out effect: Environmental intervention can raise general intelligence, but the effects aren’t permanent:

Scientists have long agreed that we humans are a complex combination of our inherited traits and the environments in which we are raised. How the scales tip in one direction or the other, however, is still the subject of much debate.

To better understand the nature versus nurture question, UC Santa Barbara psychologist John Protzko analyzed an existing study to determine whether and how environmental interventions impacted the intelligence levels of low birth weight children.

The key finding: Interventions did raise intelligence levels, but not permanently. When the interventions ended, their effects diminished over time in what psychologists describe as “the fadeout effect.” The research is highlighted in the journal Intelligence.

“Certain environmental interventions can raise general intelligence,” said Protzko, a postdoctoral scholar in the META (Memory, Emotion, Thought, Awareness) Lab in UCSB’s Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences. “It’s not just pushing scores around on a test; it’s deep changes to underlying general intelligence. The fadeout effect, however, applies the same way.” Scientists make a distinction between IQ scores, a quantitative measure of intelligence, and general intelligence, which reflects underlying cognitive abilities.

Protzko reviewed the results of the Infant Health and Development Program involving 985 children, all of whom experienced an intense and cognitively demanding environment during the first three years of their lives. Three main interventions had been employed to ameliorate the negative effects of being born at low birth weight.

At age 3, the children were given the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales as a baseline measure of their intelligence. At ages 5 and 8 — at least two years after the interventions had ended — they were again given intelligence tests.

The results showed that the interventions had raised the children’s general intelligence at age 3. However, by age 5 the increases were no longer evident. According to Protzko, this demonstrates that the fadeout effect applies to general intelligence…..                                                                             https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160314151645.htm

Citation:

IQ and fade-out effect: Environmental intervention can raise general intelligence, but the effects aren’t permanent

Date: March 14, 2016

Source: University of California – Santa Barbara

Summary:

A psychologist shows that while environmental intervention can raise general intelligence, the effects aren’t permanent.

Journal Reference:

  1. John Protzko. Does the raising IQ-raising g distinction explain the fadeout effect? Intelligence, 2016; 56: 65 DOI: 10.1016/j.intell.2016.02.008

Here is the press release from UC Santa Barbara:

Nature Versus Nurture

A psychologist shows that while environmental intervention can raise general intelligence, the effects aren’t permanent

By Julie Cohen

Monday, March 14, 2016 – 10:15

Santa Barbara, CA

Scientists have long agreed that we humans are a complex combination of our inherited traits and the environments in which we are raised. How the scales tip in one direction or the other, however, is still the subject of much debate.

To better understand the nature versus nurture question, UC Santa Barbara psychologist John Protzko analyzed an existing study to determine whether and how environmental interventions impacted the intelligence levels of low birth weight children.

The key finding: Interventions did raise intelligence levels, but not permanently. When the interventions ended, their effects diminished over time in what psychologists describe as “the fadeout effect.” The research is highlighted in the journal Intelligence.

“Certain environmental interventions can raise general intelligence,” said Protzko, a postdoctoral scholar in the META (Memory, Emotion, Thought, Awareness) Lab in UCSB’s Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences. “It’s not just pushing scores around on a test; it’s deep changes to underlying general intelligence. The fadeout effect, however, applies the same way.” Scientists make a distinction between IQ scores, a quantitative measure of intelligence, and general intelligence, which reflects underlying cognitive abilities.

Protzko reviewed the results of the Infant Health and Development Program involving 985 children, all of whom experienced an intense and cognitively demanding environment during the first three years of their lives. Three main interventions had been employed to ameliorate the negative effects of being born at low birth weight.

At age 3, the children were given the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales as a baseline measure of their intelligence. At ages 5 and 8 — at least two years after the interventions had ended — they were again given intelligence tests.

The results showed that the interventions had raised the children’s general intelligence at age 3. However, by age 5 the increases were no longer evident. According to Protzko, this demonstrates that the fadeout effect applies to general intelligence.

He also noted that this difference in intelligence at ages 3 and 5 underscored another issue: causality. One theory regarding the development of intelligence suggests that the trait can be correlated between two ages because there is a causal connection: Intelligence at one age causes intelligence at another age.

“However, my analysis starts to bring evidence to the idea that intelligence may not be the causal factor we suppose it to be from the correlation work — at least not in children,” Protzko explained. “It’s unlikely that given an increase in intelligence, I would live my life any differently than I do right now. This work will have to be done in adults to really pull that apart, but I think that this analysis starts to bring evidence against that idea of causality.”

This is the second of two papers Protzko has published on the fadeout effect. Both highlight the unidirectional reaction model, which suggests that intelligence can adapt to meet increased environmental demands but when those demands are no longer present, it returns to its previous level.

“Raising IQ is not an instance of raising test scores with no concomitant effects on the latent underlying intelligence,” Protzko said. “While both IQ scores and general intelligence can be raised through targeted environmental interventions, any gains are not permanent and fade over time.

Nonetheless, he noted, his analysis doesn’t indicate that interventions aimed at enhancing intellectual development are useless or doomed to fail. “I believe it is still a good thing to intervene and try to change the trajectory for these children,” he said.

Contact Info: 

Julie Cohen
(805) 893-7220
julie.cohen@ucsb.edu

– See more at: http://www.news.ucsb.edu/2016/016561/nature-versus-nurture#sthash.qVhkHruG.dpuf

Moi has never met an illegitimate child, she has met plenty of illegitimate parents. People that are so ill-prepared for the parent role that had they been made responsible for an animal, PETA would picket their house. We are at a point in society where we have to say don’t have children you can’t care for. There is no quick, nor easy fix for the children who start behind in life because they are the product of two other people’s choice, whether an informed choice or not. All parents should seek positive role models for their children. For single mothers who are parenting boys, they must seek positive male role models to be a part of their son’s life. Boys and girls of all ages should think before they procreate and men should give some thought about what it means to be a father before they become baby daddy.

Where information leads to Hope. © Dr. Wilda.com

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Journal of the American Medical Association special report: CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain—United States, 2016

15 Mar

HELPGUIDE.ORG defines substance abuse and also describes some of the traits of a substance abuser.

Drug abuse, also known as substance abuse, involves the repeated and excessive use of chemical substances to achieve a certain effect. These substances may be “street” or “illicit” drugs, illegal due to their high potential for addiction and abuse. They also may be drugs obtained with a prescription, used for pleasure rather than for medical reasons.
Different drugs have different effects. Some, such as cocaine or methamphetamine, may produce an intense “rush” and initial feelings of boundless energy. Others, such as heroin, benzodiazepines or the prescription oxycontin, may produce excessive feelings of relaxation and calm. What most drugs have in common, though, is overstimulation of the pleasure center of the brain. With time, the brain’s chemistry is actually altered to the point where not having the drug becomes extremely uncomfortable and even painful. This compelling urge to use, addiction, becomes more and more powerful, disrupting work, relationships, and health. http://helpguide.org/mental/drug_substance_abuse_addiction_signs_effects_treatment.htm

In a 2014 article the National Institute on Drug Abuse took a cautious approach in linking pain killers and drug abuse.

The National Institute on Drug Abuse wrote in Abuse of Prescription Pain Medications Risks Heroin Use:

Text Description of Infographic

In 2010 almost 1 in 20 adolescents and adults – 12 million people – used prescription pain medication when it was not prescribed for them or only for the feeling it caused.  While many believe these drugs are not dangerous because they can be prescribed by a doctor, abuse often leads to dependence.  And eventually, for some, pain medication abuse leads to heroin.

Top Figure: 1 in 15 people who take non medical prescription pain relievers will try heroin within 10 years.

Left  Graph: Number of people who abused or were dependent on pain medications and percentage of them that use heroin.  Pie charts show in 2004 1.4 million people abused or were dependent on pain medications and 5% used heroin. In 2010, 1.9 million people abused or were dependent on pain medications and 14% used heroin.

Right Top Graph:  Heroin users are 3 times as likely to be dependent.  14% of non medical prescription pain reliever users are dependent. Yet, 54% of heroin users are dependent.

Right Bottom Graph:  Heroin emergency room admissions are increasing.  In 2005 there were less than 200,000 emergency room visits related to heroin. By 2011 this number had increased to almost 260,000….https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/infographics/abuse-prescription-pain-medications-risks-heroin-use

The CDC issued new recommendations regarding prescribing pain medication.

Kimberly Leonard of U.S. News wrote in Getting a Painkiller from a Doctor Is About to Get Harder:

Government health officials on Tuesday provided strategies for primary care doctors who treat patients suffering from chronic pain. Among the recommendations: to use urine drug testing before prescribing highly addictive painkillers like oxycontin, codeine and morphine.

The guidance, put forth by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is part of the government’s response to the epidemic of people dying from opioid overdoses, which include prescription painkillers but also the drug’s cheaper alternative, heroin. Data from the CDC show that in 2014 these deaths surpassed car accidents as the No. 1 cause of injury-related death.

For the most part, the CDC recommends limiting opioid prescriptions to people who have cancer, are receiving end-of-life or palliative care, or are suffering with serious illnesses. Primary care doctors have been in part responsible for the surge in addiction: Since 1999, the prescribing and sales of opioids has quadrupled, and primary care doctors account for nearly half of these prescriptions….                                                                                                           http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2016-03-15/cdc-issues-guidance-on-prescription-painkillers

Citation:

Special Communication | March 15, 2016

CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain—United States, 2016 FREE ONLINE FIRST

Deborah Dowell, MD, MPH1; Tamara M. Haegerich, PhD1; Roger Chou, MD1

[+] Author Affiliations

JAMA. Published online March 15, 2016. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.1464

Text Size: A A A

Article

Tables

Supplemental Content

References

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT | INTRODUCTION | GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS | RECOMMENDATIONS | DISCUSSION | CONCLUSIONS | ARTICLE INFORMATION | REFERENCES

Importance  Primary care clinicians find managing chronic pain challenging. Evidence of long-term efficacy of opioids for chronic pain is limited. Opioid use is associated with serious risks, including opioid use disorder and overdose.

Objective  To provide recommendations about opioid prescribing for primary care clinicians treating adult patients with chronic pain outside of active cancer treatment, palliative care, and end-of-life care.

Process  The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) updated a 2014 systematic review on effectiveness and risks of opioids and conducted a supplemental review on benefits and harms, values and preferences, and costs. CDC used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework to assess evidence type and determine the recommendation category.

Evidence Synthesis  Evidence consisted of observational studies or randomized clinical trials with notable limitations, characterized as low quality using GRADE methodology. Meta-analysis was not attempted due to the limited number of studies, variability in study designs and clinical heterogeneity, and methodological shortcomings of studies. No study evaluated long-term (≥1 year) benefit of opioids for chronic pain. Opioids were associated with increased risks, including opioid use disorder, overdose, and death, with dose-dependent effects.

Recommendations  There are 12 recommendations. Of primary importance, nonopioid therapy is preferred for treatment of chronic pain. Opioids should be used only when benefits for pain and function are expected to outweigh risks. Before starting opioids, clinicians should establish treatment goals with patients and consider how opioids will be discontinued if benefits do not outweigh risks. When opioids are used, clinicians should prescribe the lowest effective dosage, carefully reassess benefits and risks when considering increasing dosage to 50 morphine milligram equivalents or more per day, and avoid concurrent opioids and benzodiazepines whenever possible. Clinicians should evaluate benefits and harms of continued opioid therapy with patients every 3 months or more frequently and review prescription drug monitoring program data, when available, for high-risk combinations or dosages. For patients with opioid use disorder, clinicians should offer or arrange evidence-based treatment, such as medication-assisted treatment with buprenorphine or methadone.

Conclusions and Relevance  The guideline is intended to improve communication about benefits and risks of opioids for chronic pain, improve safety and effectiveness of pain treatment, and reduce risks associated with long-term opioid therapy.

Here is the recommendation for patients from LeShaundra Cordier Scott, MPH, CHES; Sarah Lewis, MPH, CHES:

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SAFER AND MORE EFFECTIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT

A JAMA article was published online on March 15, 2016, describing a new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention opioid prescribing guideline for chronic pain. The guideline provides recommendations based on available science for safer, more effective treatment of chronic pain outside of active cancer, palliative care, and end-of-life care.

The recommendations ask health care practitioners to

  • Use nonopioid medications and other therapies such as physical therapy instead of or in combination with opioids.
  • Prescribe the lowest effective dosage of opioids to reduce risks of opioid use disorder and overdose.
  • Discuss potential benefits and harms of opioids with patients.
  • Assess improvements in pain and function regularly.
  • Use tools such as urine drug tests and prescription drug monitoring programs to inform themselves about patients’ other medications that increase risk.
  • Monitor patients for signs of whether opioid use disorder might be developing and arrange treatment if needed

 

WHAT YOU CAN DO

 

If you have chronic pain, be sure to

  • Consider ways to manage your pain that do not include opioids, such as physical therapy, exercise, nonopioid medications, and cognitive behavioral therapy.
  • Make the most informed decision with your doctor.
  • Never take opioids in greater amounts or more often than prescribed.
  • Avoid taking opioids with alcohol and other substances or medications you have not discussed with your doctor.

If you or someone close to you has an addiction to pain medication, talk to your doctor or contact the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s treatment help line at (800) 662-HELP.

For More Information

To find this and previous JAMA Patient Pages, go to the Patient Page link on JAMA’s website at www.jama.com. Spanish translations are available in the supplemental content tab.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

The JAMA Patient Page is a public service of JAMA. The information and recommendations appearing on this page are appropriate in most instances, but they are not a substitute for medical diagnosis. For specific information concerning your personal medical condition, JAMA suggests that you consult your physician. This page may be photocopied noncommercially by physicians and other health care professionals to share with patients. To purchase bulk reprints, call 312/464-0776.

Published Online: March 15, 2016. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.3224.

Here is the press release from the American Medical Association:

March 15, 2016

AMA Responds to CDC Guidelines on Opioids

For immediate release:
March 15, 2016

CHICAGO – In response to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines issued today, the American Medical Association (AMA) noted its shared goal of reducing harm from opioid abuse and seeking solutions to end this public health epidemic and applauds the agency for making the issue a high priority. As with any guideline development of this magnitude, we appreciated the opportunity to add the voice of patients and physicians.

“While we are largely supportive of the guidelines, we remain concerned about the evidence base informing some of the recommendations, conflicts with existing state laws and product labeling, and possible unintended consequences associated with implementation, which includes access and insurance coverage limitations for non-pharmacologic treatments, especially comprehensive care, and the potential effects of strict dosage and duration limits on patient care,” said Patrice A. Harris, MD, the AMA board chair-elect and chair of the AMA Task Force to Reduce Opioid Abuse.

“We know this is a difficult issue that doesn’t have easy solutions and if these guidelines help reduce the deaths resulting from opioids, they will prove to be valuable. If they produce unintended consequences, we will need to mitigate them. They are not the final word. More needs to be done, and we plan to continue working at the state and federal level to engage policy makers to take steps that will help end this epidemic.”

###

Media Contact:
Jack Deutsch
AMA Media & Editorial
202-789-7442
Jack.Deutsch@ama-assn.org

If you or a member of your family is prescribed pain medication, the course of treatment should follow CDC recommendations.

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University of Arkansas study: The School Choice Voucher: A “Get Out of Jail” Card?

10 Mar

Moi has posted quite a bit about vouchers. Moi discussed vouchers as one element of school choice in Given school choice, many students thrive:

The Center for Education Reform defines School Choice:

The term “school choice” means giving parents the power and opportunity to choose the school their child will attend. Traditionally, children are assigned to a public school according to where they live. People of means already have school choice, because they can afford to move to an area according to the schools available (i.e. where the quality of public schools is high), or they can choose to enroll their child in a private school. Parents without such means, until recently, generally had no choice of school, and had to send their child to the school assigned to them by the district, regardless of the school’s quality or appropriateness for their child.

School choice means better educational opportunity, because it uses the dynamics of consumer opportunity and provider competition to drive service quality. This principle is found anywhere you look, from cars to colleges and universities, but it’s largely absent in our public school system and the poor results are evident, especially in the centers of American culture – our cities. School choice programs foster parental involvement and high expectations by giving parents the option to educate their children as they see fit. It re-asserts the rights of the parent and the best interests of child over the convenience of the system, infuses accountability and quality into the system, and provides educational opportunity where none existed before.

Many school choice issues are also discussed in the school choice section.

School Choices has information about School Vouchers https://drwilda.wordpress.com/2012/03/05/university-of-arkansas-study-finds-milwaukee-voucher-students-go-to-college-at-higher-rate/

The Brookings Institute (Brookings) released the report, The Effects of School Vouchers on College Enrollment: Experimental Evidence from New York City.  See also, Vouchers Help African American Students Go to College http://educationnext.org/vouchers-help-african-american-students-go-to-college/    and New Research on the Impact of Vouchers http://www.nationalreview.com/agenda/314852/new-research-impact-vouchers-reihan-salam

https://drwilda.com/2012/08/23/given-school-choice-many-students-thrive/

The University of Arkansas released How Has the Louisiana Scholarship Program Affected Students?

Posted by UArk Dept. of Ed. Reform – February 19, 2016 – LSP-Y2, SCDP, SCDP and a policy paper which examined the Milwaukee voucher program was part of the research project.

Ameila Hamilton wrote in A new paper looks at school vouchers and lower crime rates:

School choice is frequently hailed as a way to change the trajectories of lives in ways that will resonate for generations. While this is certainly true in terms of the educational achievement that leads to college, employment and the social mobility those bring, a new study is taking a look at how school choice also reduces crime.

In the past, families with the financial means to pay for private school have always had school choice. School vouchers are one way to expand choice to those without such advantages, by providing tuition assistance to students who could otherwise not afford it.

Wisconsin has one such program and The School Choice Voucher: A “Get Out of Jail” Card?, a paper released Tuesday by the University of Arkansas, examines crime rates in Milwaukee among students in voucher programs compared to students in traditional public schools. The study was conducted by Corey DeAngelis, a doctoral student in education policy, and Patrick J. Wolf, professor and 21st Century Chair in School Choice at the University of Arkansas.

It found that, not only do crime rates decline among students who participate in voucher programs, they continue to decline the longer a student is enrolled. “We conclude,” the paper says, “that merely being exposed to private schooling for a short time through a voucher program may not have a significant impact on criminal activity, though persistently attending a private school through a voucher program can decrease subsequent criminal activity, especially for males.”

The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) is the longest-running school choice program in the country, giving researchers the most data possible….                                                                http://watchdog.org/259034/a-new-paper-looks-at-school-vouchers-and-lower-crime-rates/

See, School Voucher Program Students Commit Fewer Crimes, Study Suggests, http://www.educationnews.org/education-policy-and-politics/school-voucher-program-students-commit-fewer-crimes-study-suggests/#sthash.yvn0hXeQ.dpuf

Citation:

The School Choice Voucher: A ‘Get Out of Jail’ Card?
Source: Corey DeAngelis, Patrick J. Wolf,EDRE Working Paper No. 2016-01, January 6, 2016

Abstract:
In this article we examine crime rates for students in Milwaukee’s citywide voucher program and a comparable group of public school students. Using unique data collected as part of a state-mandated evaluation of the program, we consider criminal activity by students initially exposed to voucher schools and those in public schools at the same time. We also consider criminal activity by students that stayed in the voucher program through 12th grade compared to those who were in public schools at the same time. We show that the mere exposure to private schooling through a voucher is associated with lower rates of criminal activity but the relationship is not robust to different analytic samples or measures of crime. We find a more consistent statistically significant negative relationship between students that stayed in the voucher program through 12th grade and criminal activity (meaning persistent voucher students commit fewer crimes). These results are apparent when controlling for student demographics, test scores, and parental characteristics. We conclude that merely being exposed to private schooling for a short time through a voucher program may not have a significant impact on criminal activity, though persistence in a voucher program can decrease subsequent criminal activity.

– See more at: http://www.afscmeinfocenter.org/privatizationupdate/2016/01/organizational-failure-in-the-hollow-state-lessons-from-the-milwaukee-voucher-experience.htm#.VuJd7zEi1dg

Here is the press release from the University of Arkansas:

Study Finds Connection Between School Voucher Use, Lower Crime Rates

March 08, 2016

An evaluation by University of Arkansas researchers of a Milwaukee school voucher program found that students who used the vouchers to attend a private high school were less likely to commit crimes than comparable students who attended Milwaukee public schools.

Corey DeAngelis, a doctoral student in education policy, and Patrick J. Wolf, who holds the Twenty-First Century Chair in School Choice, describe the results of the analysis in their paper titled “The School Choice Voucher: A ‘Get Out of Jail’ Card?” They presented the paper in January at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

The School Choice Demonstration Project based at the U of A and directed by Wolf has conducted several previous studies of the Milwaukee program, looking at student achievement, high school graduation rates, college enrollment rates, promotion of civic values and parental satisfaction and views of safety.

Schools also can be thought of as social institutions that aim to improve the non-cognitive skills of students, according to the paper, and the combination of academic achievement and non-cognitive advancement of students can lead to better life outcomes as measured by lifetime earnings, employment and citizenship. In the current study, citizenship of a given student was evaluated by looking at criminal activity as adults.

DeAngelis and Wolf used data from the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program to conduct the first analysis of the effect of a private school choice program on the criminal behavior of young adults. Milwaukee’s is the first urban publicly funded tuition voucher system, launched in 1990, and currently enrolls more than 27,000 students in more than 110 private schools.

The researchers matched students using the voucher with students in public schools using data on grade, neighborhood, race, gender, English language learner status, and math and reading tests. They also controlled for family characteristics such as income, family composition and parental education. They used the Wisconsin Court System Circuit Court Access system to search for cases involving former students who had been in the program during a longitudinal study from 2006 to 2011 and were 22 to 25 years old during the criminal database search.

The results indicated that using a voucher to attend private school reduces the likelihood of a student committing a misdemeanor as a young adult by 5 to 7 percentage points, or committing a felony by 3 percentage points, and of being accused of any crime by 5 to 12 percentage points. The effects of the voucher program on reducing crime rates are especially clear and large for men, who commit more crimes than do women.

The complete study can be found on the School Choice Demonstration Project website.

  • Contacts

  • Heidi Stambuck, director of communications College of Education and Health Professions 479-575-3138, stambuck@uark.edu

There is no magic bullet or “Holy Grail” in education. There is only what works to produce academic achievement in each population of children. That is why school choice is so important. Moi does not have the dread of a well-defined voucher program targeted at at-risk children. The tax credit program is entirely a horse of a different color and should be discouraged.

Related:

What is the Indiana voucher program?                                                                           https://drwilda.com/2012/08/26/what-is-the-indiana-voucher-program/

Are tax credits disguised vouchers?                                                                                 https://drwilda.com/2012/06/17/are-tax-credits-disguised-vouchers/

University of Arkansas study finds Milwaukee voucher students go to college at higher rate   https://drwilda.com/2012/03/05/university-of-arkansas-study-finds-milwaukee-voucher-students-go-to-college-at-higher-rate/

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Dr. Wilda Reviews: KBTC and NHK partnership

8 Mar

Moi attended the Seattle launch event for the partnership between KBTC, a U.S. public television station, and NHK the Japanese public television station. Here is a bit about NHK:

NHK, Nippon Hoso Kyokai (Japan Broadcasting Corporation), is Japan’s only public broadcaster.
As a public broadcaster funded by fees received from TV viewers, NHK delivers a wide range of impartial, high-quality programs, both at home and abroad….

   Corporation name Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK)
※ English : Japan Broadcasting Corporation
Headquarters NHK Broadcasting Center
2-2-1 Jinnan, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8001, Japan
TEL: +81-(0)3-3465-1111
President Katsuto Momii
Foundation June 1, 1950 (Date of re-establishment of NHK as Japan’s public broadcaster)– NHK’s predecessor, Tokyo Broadcasting Station, broadcast its first radio program in March 1925.

– NHK was founded in 1926 through the merger of three broadcasting stations, including Tokyo Broadcasting Station. NHK was later re-established as a public broadcaster under the terms of the Broadcast Law.

Broadcasting Services DomesticTwo terrestrial TV channels: General TV and Educational TV

Two satellite TV channels: BS 1 and BS Premium

Three radio channels: Radio 1, Radio 2 and FM

International

Two television services: NHK WORLD TV (English) and NHK WORLD PREMIUM (Japanese)

Radio: NHK WORLD RADIO JAPAN (18 languages)

Number of full-time employees 10,292 (FY2014)
Offices
(as of April, 2015)
Domestic broadcasting stations54 (including headquarters office)

Overseas offices

29

Budget (FY2015)(The fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.) Total operating incomeTotal operating expenditure

http://www.nhk.or.jp/corporateinfo/english/corporate/index.html

KBTC and NHK will offer NHK world:

KBTC is proud to offer NHK World, an all English language public media television channel filled with international news; business, technology, and science information; and life styles, culture, and travel programs produced and present- ed from Japanese and Asian perspectives.NHK World will launch first for free over the air via channel 28.2. Cable carriage will follow as those partnerships are formalized in February. Fans of MHz Worldview who receive the channel with an antenna will find all your favorite international news and drama programs now on channel 28.3. Click here for more information about NHK World, including schedule and more!                                                                                                                 http://www.kbtc.org/page.php?id=1715

This partnership is important because it promotes international cultural literacy.

Kevin Johnston explained why international cultural literacy is important in Why Is It Important to Gain Cultural Literacy in International Business?

Cross-Cultural Core Competency

It’s important that you demonstrate that you are a global citizen so international customers are willing to do business with you. It’s not realistic to set a goal of gaining a deep understanding of all the cultures you may deal with in the course of growing your international marketing. Instead, aim for a core competency. According to an article in “Profit” magazine, you can look at six areas of knowledge you need: Familiarize yourself with cultural attitudes about dealing with strangers, language barriers, how groups respond to sales pitches as either favors or cut-and-dried presentations, local channels you must use for brand awareness, the technical proficiency and capacity of the country or region and how the culture views the importance of doing things on time or relaxing about meeting times and deadline dates.

Cultural Roots of Business Etiquette

You must understand how a culture views business dealings so you know what style to use when approaching businesspeople in that culture. Some cultures look at a transaction as a favor among friends, while others embrace the more American style of a straightforward discussion about making money. Still others may allow business discussions only in certain settings and frown on them at other times. Look into this aspect of the culture before you make any business proposals.

Related Reading: Cultural Communication Differences in a Business

Considering Context

You can evaluate your business transactions with a culture different from your own in light of that culture’s contextual clues. This helps you avoid gaffes and create business communications that have a positive impact. The country’s history and assumptions about Americans can affect how your message is received. Be sensitive to hot-button issues and avoid any phrases or words that could suggest you look down on the culture or that you consider the person you’re dealing with to be a second-class citizen in his own culture. This kind of cultural literacy is of utmost importance when you communicate so you can avoid unintentional negative cultural messages when conducting business.

Avoiding Americanisms

Using internationally accepted word choices and phrases ensures your business dealings won’t be misunderstood. Some American phrases do not translate well. For example, “We shall see” means “No” in China. Other phrases such as, “Flying by the seat of our pants” or “Ballpark figure” may not have any meaning at all in other cultures. Scrutinize your written communications for figurative language that may not translate. In addition, cut your verbal communications to the basics. It’s important for a company doing global business to remember that the language at its home office may not be universal….                                                                         http://smallbusiness.chron.com/important-gain-cultural-literacy-international-business-69605.html

Here is the press release from KBTC:

Press Release:

NHK World’s 24/7 English Television Service Comes to Western Washington

Through KBTC Public Television

KBTC Public Television (simulcast on KCKA) and NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) sign an agreement that ensures television viewers in Seattle, Tacoma, Olympia, and all of western Washington

can access NHK WORLD’s HD programming on air via channel 28.2, 15.2,

and on Comcast via HD Channel 115  

Tacoma, WA, 02/22/2016 – NHK World, an English language public media television station broadcast from Japan, launches on Comcast Xfinity HD Channel 115 Tuesday, March 22, 2016 in partnership with local PBS station KBTC Public Television and NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation).

NHK World will be available to viewers throughout western Washington on cable and off air through KBTC Public Television’s terrestrial broadcast service.

KBTC Public Television which also operates KCKA in Centralia/Chehalis Washington launched NHK World in HD via channel 28.2, 15.2 in January. KBTC Public Television is one of only six of PBS Member Stations to development this partnership with NHK in the United States. The Seattle-Tacoma Designated Market Area becomes the U.S. seventh major market where NHK WORLD can be accessed via terrestrial television broadcast and on cable.

“Partnering with NHK to bring NHK World to western Washington represents KBTC Public Television’s commitment to provide viewers in our area with the opportunity to explore their world,” said Ed Ulman, Executive Director & GM of KBTC Public Television. “NHK World is a top flight broadcast service watched around the globe, and we are pleased to be their broadcast partner here in Tacoma and Seattle.”

NHK WORLD is a 24/7 English language public media service featuring original television programming produced and scheduled by NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation). NHK WORLD delivers a unique and diverse blend of programming featuring domestic and international news about Japanese society, politics, scientific advancement, culture, history and lifestyles. NHK WORLD is watched by television viewers around the globe and through this partnership will be available to the 4.3 million viewers throughout western Washington

The broadcast reach for KBTC/KCKA includes all western Washington communities from the Canadian border through Bellingham, Seattle, Tacoma, Olympia Centralia Chehalis onto Kelso/Longview. Viewers will find NHK World on KBTC 28.1, KCKA 15.2, Comcast HD channel 115, and through other cable services. This new television service expands on KBTC’s commitment to provide western Washington television viewers with rich media experiences that educate, inspire, and entertain.

“We are excited about this partnership with KBTC Public Television to bring our highly specialized programming to Seattle, a sophisticated community that is home to cultured citizens and thousands of Japanese-Americans,” said Mr. Yoshihiko Shimizu, President and CEO of JIB (Japan International Broadcasting Inc.) “KBTC provides an outlet for viewers to be educated, inspired and entertained. This partnership allows viewers to gain a worldly perspective on Japanese and Asian culture and news.”

NHK WORLD TV reaches over 290 million households in 150 countries and regions via local satellite and cable TV providers. The free mobile App, online live-streaming, and VOD (video on-demand) services on the website, give viewers access to NHK WORLD TV anywhere and anytime. Viewers can also connect through Apple TV and Amazon Fire TV. Presenting an extensive range of Asia-centered programming, NHK WORLD is your window to Japan, Asia, and the rest of the world.

Providing both domestic and international news to the world accurately and promptly is a hallmark of the NHK WORLD news team. Ensuring that viewers around the world have access to information on Asia from various perspectives, making the best use of NHK’s global network; serving as a vital information lifeline in the event of major accidents and natural disasters; presenting broadcasts with great accuracy and speed on many aspects of Japanese culture and lifestyles, including recent developments in society and politics, the latest scientific and industrial trends, and Japan’s role and opinions regarding important global issues is the aim of NHK WORLD.

“NHK WORLD is committed to fostering mutual understanding between Japan and other countries and promoting friendship and cultural exchange,” Ulman said. “In our interactions leading to this partnership and through an our examination of the broadcast services and programs that only NHK WORLD can provide, we have learned that NHK and KBTC share the public media values that we also promote through our PBS, BBC, APTS, NETA, EPS, MHz Worldview, and TVW programming services.”

“Comcast is excited to bring this rich collection of programming to our customers and showcase the programming and culture of this dynamic and important nation. A U.S. journalist recently described NHK World as ‘a bit like the Japanese equivalent of BBC America and BBC World Service rolled into one: a multi-language platform for blasting locally produced news and entertainment programming across the globe. It is wonderful.’ We’re delighted to bring this to Comcast customers.”  Vicky Oxley, Regional Vice President, Comcast.

About KBTC Public Television

KBTC is the South Sound’s Public Broadcasting Station. Operating out of Tacoma, Washington, KBTC is the only television broadcaster in Pierce County. KBTC is committed to telling local stories that aren’t being told anywhere else, serving underserved and diverse audiences, and connecting viewers with the people and ideas that shape western Washington. KBTC is available to 1.8 million TV households and 4.3 million viewers in western Washington, British Columbia, and Oregon. Over 900,000 viewers tune in weekly. KBTC is a viewer supported community service of Bates Technical College.

Contact: For more information, contact Cheree Apland at 253-680-7701 or by emailcapland@kbtc.org

See, KBTC NHK Web Promo: We take a quick look at NHK and what the network has to offer the Seattle/Tacoma Market http://video.kbtc.org/video/2365673281/                                                                 and NHK Launch Gala: Gala celebrations in Seattle and Tacoma for Japanese Public Television Station NHK World which now can be seen in the Seattle TV Market thanks to KBTC and Comcast. http://video.kbtc.org/video/2365678969/

Moi gives thumbs up to this partnership for a variety of reasons. First, it will help the business community develop cultural literacy for dealing with Asian cultures as NHK covers Asia. Second, this partnership will help the homeschool community teach cultural literacy.

Janice Campbell wrote in What is Cultural Literacy? And How Can it Help You Homeschool?

To be culturally literate is to understand the history and concepts that underlie a culture, and to be able to converse fluently in the allusions and informal content of that culture…..

I wouldn’t try to list everything your student should learn, but here’s my short list of what they’ll need to study for basic cultural literacy:

  • Literature (both read for pleasure and taught analytically in historic and artistic context)

  • History (in its fullest sense, encompassing all aspects of individual civilizations up to and including the present, with attention to politics, religion, science, and the arts)

  • Art and Music (including at least some applied experience, and built on a foundation of art history and appreciation)

  • Science (applied sciences to be studied on the foundation of knowledge of scientific history)

  • Logic and Mathematics (built on a solid foundation of arithmetic)

  • Rhetoric (including debate based on principles of logic, and including appropriate allusions to content from the other disciplines)                                                                          http://www.doingwhatmatters.com/what-is-cultural-literacy/

The KBTC and NHK partnership is a 24/7 channel which includes various types of programming which will assist both the business community and homeschool community attain a degree of cultural literacy for understanding Asian cultures.

Moi gives thumbs up to this partnership

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University of Toledo study: Children Who Are Emotionally Abused May Be More Likely to Experience Migraine as Adults

4 Mar

Moi said in Schools have to deal with depressed and troubled children:
Both the culture and the economy are experiencing turmoil. For some communities, the unsettled environment is a new phenomenon, for other communities, children have been stressed for generations. According to the article, Understanding Depression which was posted at the Kids Health site:

Depression is the most common mental health problem in the United States. Each year it affects 17 million people of all age groups, races, and economic backgrounds.
As many as 1 in every 33 children may have depression; in teens, that number may be as high as 1 in 8. http://kidshealth.org/parent/emotions/feelings/understanding_depression.html

Schools are developing strategies to deal with troubled kids.

Andrew M. Seaman of Reuters reported in Parents’ depression may affect kids’ school performance:

Children perform worse in school when their parents are diagnosed with depression, suggests a study from Sweden.

The study found a significant negative link between parents’ depression and kids’ school performance, said senior author Brian Lee, of the Drexel University School of Public Health in Philadelphia.

“We obviously know that depression is a bad thing like any other mental health outcome,” Lee said. “It’s less recognized that mental health outcomes affect other people than the people themselves. So for parents or guardians, a vulnerable population would be their children.”

Previous studies found children with depressed parents are more likely to have problems with brain development, behavior and emotions, along with other psychiatric problems, Lee and his colleagues write in JAMA Psychiatry. Few studies have looked at school performance, however….

Overall, when parents were diagnosed with depression during their children’s lifetime, the kids’ grades suffered. A mother’s depression appeared to affect daughters more than sons, they note.

Lee characterized the link between parental depression and children’s school performance as “moderate.”

On the range of factors that influence a child’s school performance, Lee said parental depression falls between a family’s economic status and parental education, which is one of the biggest factors in determining a child’s success in school.

The researchers caution that depression may have been undermeasured in the population. Also, they can’t say that a parent’s depression actually causes children to perform worse in school…. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-school-depression-parents-idUSKCN0VC2VS

One of the effects of parental depression can be both physical and emotional child abuse.

Science Daily reported in Children Who Are Emotionally Abused May Be More Likely to Experience Migraine as Adults:

Children who are emotionally abused may be more likely to experience migraines as young adults, according to a preliminary study released today that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology’s 68th Annual Meeting in Vancouver, Canada, April 15 to 21, 2016. The link between migraine and abuse was stronger for emotional abuse than for physical or sexual abuse in the study.

“Emotional abuse showed the strongest link to increased risk of migraine,” said author Gretchen Tietjen, MD, from the University of Toledo in Ohio and a member of the American Academy of Neurology. “Childhood abuse can have long-lasting effects on health and well-being.”

In the study, emotional abuse was assessed by asking, “How often did a parent or other adult caregiver say things that really hurt your feelings or made you feel like you were not wanted or loved?”

The study included data from 14,484 people age 24 to 32. About 14 percent reported they had been diagnosed with migraines. The participants were asked whether they had experienced emotional, physical or sexual abuse in childhood. Physical abuse was defined as being hit with a fist, kicked, or thrown down on the floor, into a wall, or down stairs. Sexual abuse included forced sexual touching or sexual relations. About 47 percent of the participants answered yes to having been emotionally abused, 18 percent physically abused and 5 percent sexually abused.

Of those diagnosed with migraines, 61 percent said they had been abused as a child. Of those who never had a migraine, 49 percent said they were abused. Those who were abused were 55 percent more likely to experience migraine than those who were never abused after accounting for age, income, race and sex.

Those who were emotionally abused were 52 percent more likely to have migraine than those who were not abused, after accounting for other types of abuse as well as age, income, race and sex. In contrast, those who were sexually or physically abused were not significantly more likely to have migraine than people who were not abused.

The relationship between emotional abuse and migraine remained when researchers adjusted the results to take into account depression and anxiety. In that analysis, people who were emotionally abused were 32 percent more likely to have migraine than people who were not abused.

Tietjen noted that the study shows an association between childhood emotional abuse, a very common occurrence, and migraine. It does not show cause and effect, although the finding that the likelihood of having migraines increases with increasing number of abuse types is suggestive of it…. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160302182237.htm

Citation:

Children Who Are Emotionally Abused May Be More Likely to Experience Migraine as Adults
Date: March 2, 2016
Source: American Academy of Neurology (AAN)
Summary:
Children who are emotionally abused may be more likely to experience migraines as young adults, according to a preliminary study. The link between migraine and abuse was stronger for emotional abuse than for physical or sexual abuse in the study.

American Academy of Neurology (AAN). “Children Who Are Emotionally Abused May Be More Likely to Experience Migraine as Adults.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 March 2016. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160302182237.htm>.

Here is the press release from the American Academy of Neurology:

Public Release: 2-Mar-2016

Children who are emotionally abused may be more likely to experience migraine as adults
American Academy of Neurology

MINNEAPOLIS – Children who are emotionally abused may be more likely to experience migraines as young adults, according to a preliminary study released today that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology’s 68th Annual Meeting in Vancouver, Canada, April 15 to 21, 2016. The link between migraine and abuse was stronger for emotional abuse than for physical or sexual abuse in the study.

“Emotional abuse showed the strongest link to increased risk of migraine,” said author Gretchen Tietjen, MD, from the University of Toledo in Ohio and a member of the American Academy of Neurology. “Childhood abuse can have long-lasting effects on health and well-being.”

In the study, emotional abuse was assessed by asking, “How often did a parent or other adult caregiver say things that really hurt your feelings or made you feel like you were not wanted or loved?”

The study included data from 14,484 people age 24 to 32. About 14 percent reported they had been diagnosed with migraines. The participants were asked whether they had experienced emotional, physical or sexual abuse in childhood. Physical abuse was defined as being hit with a fist, kicked, or thrown down on the floor, into a wall, or down stairs. Sexual abuse included forced sexual touching or sexual relations. About 47 percent of the participants answered yes to having been emotionally abused, 18 percent physically abused and 5 percent sexually abused.

Of those diagnosed with migraines, 61 percent said they had been abused as a child. Of those who never had a migraine, 49 percent said they were abused. Those who were abused were 55 percent more likely to experience migraine than those who were never abused after accounting for age, income, race and sex.

Those who were emotionally abused were 52 percent more likely to have migraine than those who were not abused, after accounting for other types of abuse as well as age, income, race and sex. In contrast, those who were sexually or physically abused were not significantly more likely to have migraine than people who were not abused.

The relationship between emotional abuse and migraine remained when researchers adjusted the results to take into account depression and anxiety. In that analysis, people who were emotionally abused were 32 percent more likely to have migraine than people who were not abused.

Tietjen noted that the study shows an association between childhood emotional abuse, a very common occurrence, and migraine. It does not show cause and effect, although the finding that the likelihood of having migraines increases with increasing number of abuse types is suggestive of it.

“More research is needed to better understand this relationship between childhood abuse and migraine,” said Tietjen. “This is also something doctors may want to consider when they treat people with migraine.”

The study was supported by the University of Toledo and the Clair Martig Endowment.
Learn more about migraine at http://www.aan.com/patients.
The American Academy of Neurology, an association of 30,000 neurologists and neuroscience professionals, is dedicated to promoting the highest quality patient-centered neurologic care. A neurologist is a doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system such as Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis, brain injury, Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy.
For more information about the American Academy of Neurology, visit http://www.aan.com or find us on Facebook, Twitter, Google+ and YouTube.
See, UT neurologist’s research links emotional abuse in children to migraines as young adults http://utnews.utoledo.edu/index.php/03_04_2016/ut-neurologists-research-links-emotional-abuse-in-children-to-migraines-as-young-adults

If you or your child needs help for depression or another illness, then go to a reputable medical provider. There is nothing wrong with taking the steps necessary to get well.

Related:

Schools have to deal with depressed and troubled children
https://drwilda.wordpress.com/2011/11/15/schools-have-to-deal-with-depressed-and-troubled-children/

School psychologists are needed to treat troubled children
https://drwilda.wordpress.com/2012/02/27/school-psychologists-are-needed-to-treat-troubled-children/

Battling teen addiction: ‘Recovery high schools’
https://drwilda.wordpress.com/2012/07/08/battling-teen-addiction-recovery-high-schools/

Resources:

1. About.Com’s Depression In Young Children http://depression.about.com/od/child/Young_Children.htm

2. Psych Central’s Depression In Young Children http://depression.about.com/od/child/Young_Children.htm

3. Psychiatric News’ Study Helps Pinpoint Children With Depression http://psychnews.psychiatryonline.org/newsarticle.aspx?articleid=106034

4. Family Doctor’s What Is Depression? http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/depression.html

5. WebMD’s Depression In Children http://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/depression-children

6. Healthline’s Is Your Child Depressed?
http://www.healthline.com/hlvideo-5min/how-to-help-your-child-through-depression-517095449

7. Medicine.Net’s Depression In Children http://www.onhealth.com/depression_in_children/article.htm

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