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Technical University of Munich study: Allergy potential of strawberries and tomatoes depends on the variety

21 Jul

Moi wrote about allergies in Food allergies can be deadly for some children:

If one is not allergic to substances, then you probably don’t pay much attention to food allergies. The parents and children in one Florida classroom are paying a lot of attention to the subject of food allergies because of the severe allergic reaction one child has to peanuts. In the article, Peanut Allergy Stirs Controversy At Florida Schools Reuters reports:
Some public school parents in Edgewater, Florida, want a first-grade girl with life-threatening peanut allergies removed from the classroom and home-schooled, rather than deal with special rules to protect her health, a school official said.
“That was one of the suggestions that kept coming forward from parents, to have her home-schooled. But we’re required by federal law to provide accommodations. That’s just not even an option for us,” said Nancy Wait, spokeswoman for the Volusia County School District.
Wait said the 6-year-old’s peanut allergy is so severe it is considered a disability under the Americans with Disabilities Act.
To protect the girl, students in her class at Edgewater Elementary School are required to wash their hands before entering the classroom in the morning and after lunch, and rinse out their mouths, Wait said, and a peanut-sniffing dog checked out the school during last week’s spring break….
Chris Burr, a father of two older students at the school whose wife has protested at the campus, said a lot of small accommodations have added up to frustration for many parents.
“If I had a daughter who had a problem, I would not ask everyone else to change…. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/22/us-peanut-allergy-idUSTRE72L7AQ20110322

Researchers are trying to discover the reason for the allergies.

Active Beat described allergies in the 10 Most Common allergies in Adults:

1. Nuts
Even though we’re most sensitive about nut exposure in schools and around our children, peanut allergies make up 3.3 million allergy cases in the U.S. Plus, reactions to peanut allergies are typically the most severe, resulting in the highest rates of anaphylactic shock compared to other types of allergies. So beware of seemingly nut-free foods and beauty products—moisturizer (which often uses peanut oil) and chili and stews (which often add peanut butter as a thickener).
2. Pollen
Pollens are another common allergy trigger for North Americans. And pollen allergies can act up if you share an environment with trees, grass, and flowering plants. Pollen allergens are airborne so they’re particularly challenging from spring to autumn when plant life is blooming and pollen can be inhaled.
3. Shellfish
Shellfish allergy is one of the more common food allergies for adults—with more than 2-percent of American adults affected. Shellfish allergies also typically develop later in life, unlike many others. So not only do sufferers have to say no to shrimp, oysters, lobster, clams, mussels, and crab; they also have to beware of coming into contact with things like vitamins (i.e., Glucosamine), pet foods, and cross contamination from restaurants.
4. Pet Hair
Sure you love Fido and Fluffy, but as soon as they crawl up on your lap, you’re left with a runny nose and watery eyes. Allergies to pet hair stem from the oil that animal’s secrete from their coats as well as from the protein in their hair.
5. Eggs
Even though more kids are affected by egg allergies, they are still a concern for 20-percent who take the reaction with them into adulthood. Eggs are often hidden in the sneakiest of places as well—including in immunizations, medications, anesthetics, and baked goods.
6. Dust mites
Dust mites are stubborn allergens because they can’t be seen by the naked eye, and they live in dust, which is present in just about every home and workplace setting. And the allergen is kind of gross—dust mites feed on our bacteria, fungi and dead skin cells in dust balls, and we experience allergic reactions to their waste. Yuck!
7. Soy
Although soy is less of an allergen issue for adults than it is for children, soy beans are a common hidden ingredient in packaged foods, hair, baby formula, stuffed toys, and skin products, so it can be rather dangerous even though it may not be listed on the label.
8. Insect bites
An insect stings or bites as part of its defensive mechanism. However, when an insect bites, it leaves proteins in the skin that are also allergy triggers for some people. The allergy can manifest as mild swelling and itchiness, but it can also be life-threatening for some people.

9. Milk
Cow’s milk is the most common food allergy, with 80-percent of U.S. children suffering from exposure to dairy products, many taking the allergy into adulthood. A milk allergy differs from “lactose intolerance” (the body’s inability to digest milk sugars) in that it’s an immune response to milk proteins, including lactose-free products.
10. Wheat
Wheat is a challenging food allergy because it’s found in so many things—including soy sauce, most beers, deli meats, moisturizing lotions, and even shampoos. A wheat allergy differs from Celiac disease (an autoimmune disorder), and oftentimes can cause anaphylaxis in combination with physical exertion. https://www.activebeat.com/your-health/women/10-most-common-allergies-in-adults/?streamview=all

The Technical University of Munich studied whether the variety of the allergen has an impact on the specific allergy.

Science Daily reported in Allergy potential of strawberries and tomatoes depends on the variety

The incidence of food allergies has increased in recent decades: It affects three to four percent of the adult population and five percent of children. Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) can cause allergic reactions due to the presence of various allergenic proteins. Of particular note are proteins that resemble the primary allergen in birch pollen and due to this similarity can lead to birch pollen-associated food allergy. About 1.5 percent of the population in Northern Europe and up to 16 percent in Italy are affected by tomato allergies. And around 30 percent of those who are allergic to birch pollen also report allergenic reactions to strawberry fruits….
Previous studies have found that there are several proteins in both strawberries and tomatoes, which can cause allergic reactions. The aim of the two recently published studies was to quantify an important allergenic protein in the various strawberry and tomato varieties. In order to analyze a broad spectrum, varieties were selected in both cases, which differed in size, shape, and color. Furthermore, the influence of organic and conventional cultivation conditions as well as various processing methods ranging from sun-drying and oven-drying to freeze-drying of the fruits, were investigated. It was assumed that the concentration of the allergenic protein varies with the color of the ripe fruit, the state of growth, and the processing method.
The specific variety makes all the difference
Twenty-three different-colored tomato varieties and 20 strawberry varieties of different sizes and shapes were examined to analyze the genetic factor for the expression of the allergenic protein in the fruits.
The concentration of the allergen in both types of fruit varied greatly between varieties. In addition, the heat sensitivity of the proteins could be confirmed: If the fruits were exposed to heat during the drying process, their allergy potential was lower. However, the influence of cultivation conditions (conventional and ecological) on the allergy content was minor….
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/07/180713111957.htm

Citation:

Allergy potential of strawberries and tomatoes depends on the variety
Approach for cultivation of strawberry and tomato varieties with reduced allergy potential
Date:
July 13, 2018
Source:
Technical University of Munich (TUM)
Summary:
Strawberries and tomatoes are among the most widely consumed fruits and vegetables worldwide. However, many people are allergic to them, especially if they have been diagnosed with birch pollen allergy. A team has investigated which strawberry or tomato varieties contain fewer allergens than others and to what extent cultivation or preparation methods are involved.
Journal References:
1. Elisabeth Kurze, Roberto Lo Scalzo, Gabriele Campanelli, Wilfried Schwab. Effect of tomato variety, cultivation, climate and processing on Sola l 4, an allergen from Solanum lycopersicum. PLOS ONE, 2018; 13 (6): e0197971 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197971
2. Elisabeth Kurze, Vanessa Kock, Roberto Lo Scalzo, Klaus Olbricht, Wilfried Schwab. Effect of the Strawberry Genotype, Cultivation and Processing on the Fra a 1 Allergen Content. Nutrients, 2018; 10 (7): 857 DOI: 10.3390/nu10070857

Here is the press release from the Technical University of Munich:

Approach for cultivation of strawberry and tomato varieties with reduced allergy potential
Allergy potential of strawberries and tomatoes depends on the variety
13.07.2018, Research news
Strawberries and tomatoes are among the most widely consumed fruits and vegetables worldwide. However, many people are allergic to them, especially if they have been diagnosed with birch pollen allergy. A team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has investigated which strawberry or tomato varieties contain fewer allergens than others and to what extent cultivation or preparation methods are involved.
The incidence of food allergies has increased in recent decades: It affects three to four percent of the adult population and five percent of children. Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) can cause allergic reactions due to the presence of various allergenic proteins. Of particular note are proteins that resemble the primary allergen in birch pollen and due to this similarity can lead to birch pollen-associated food allergy. About 1.5 percent of the population in Northern Europe and up to 16 percent in Italy are affected by tomato allergies. And around 30 percent of those who are allergic to birch pollen also report allergenic reactions to strawberry fruits.

Symptoms of an immunological reaction to strawberries or tomatoes can affect the skin (urticaria or dermatitis), irritate mucous membranes and trigger a runny nose, and can also lead to abdominal pain. Food allergy sufferers develop symptoms after eating fresh fruit or vegetables, while processed products are often tolerated.

Previous studies have found that there are several proteins in both strawberries and tomatoes, which can cause allergic reactions. The aim of the two recently published studies under the direction of Prof. Dr. Wilfried Schwab from the Chair of Biotechnology of Natural Products was to quantify an important allergenic protein in the various strawberry and tomato varieties. In order to analyze a broad spectrum, varieties were selected in both cases, which differed in size, shape, and color.
Furthermore, the influence of organic and conventional cultivation conditions as well as various processing methods ranging from sun-drying and oven-drying to freeze-drying of the fruits, were investigated. It was assumed that the concentration of the allergenic protein varies with the color of the ripe fruit, the state of growth, and the processing method.
THE SPECIFIC VARIETY MAKES ALL THE DIFFERENCE
Twenty-three different-colored tomato varieties and 20 strawberry varieties of different sizes and shapes were examined to analyze the genetic factor for the expression of the allergenic protein in the fruits.

The concentration of the allergen in both types of fruit varied greatly between varieties. In addition, the heat sensitivity of the proteins could be confirmed: If the fruits were exposed to heat during the drying process, their allergy potential was lower. However, the influence of cultivation conditions (conventional and ecological) on the allergy content was minor.

Consequently, the proteins investigated in the studies (Sola l 4.02 in tomatoes and Fra a 1 protein in strawberries) may in future serve as markers for the cultivation of hypoallergenic tomato and strawberry varieties.
PUBLICATIONS:
Kurze, Elisabeth, Lo Scalzo, Roberto, Campanelli, Gabriele; Schwab, Wilfried: Effect of tomato variety, cultivation, climate and processing on Sola l 4, an allergen from Solanum lycopersicum, PLOS ONE 2018. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197971.

Kurze, Elisabeth; Kock, Vanessa; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Olbricht, Klaus and Schwab, Wilfried: Effect of the strawberry genotype, cultivation and processing on the Fra a 1 allergen content, Nutrients 2018 10, 857. DOI: 10.3390/nu10070857..
CONTACT:
Prof. Dr. Wilfried Schwab
Technical University of Munich
Chair of Biotechnology of Natural Products
Phone: +49 8161 71 2912
Mail: wilfried.schwab@tum.de
Desk: Sabine Letz https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/detail/article/34818/

A physical examination is important for children to make sure that there are no health problems. The University of Arizona Department of Pediatrics has an excellent article which describes Pediatric History and Physical Examination http://www.peds.arizona.edu/medstudents/Physicalexamination.asp The article goes on to describe how the physical examination is conducted and what observations and tests are part of the examination. The Cincinnati Children’s Hospital describes the Process of the Physical Examination http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/p/exam/
If children have allergies, parents must work with their schools to prepare a allergy health plan. See, Journal of American Medical Association study: Consumption of nuts by pregnant woman may reduce nut allergies in their children https://drwilda.com/tag/peanut-allergy/

Resources:

Micheal Borella’s Chicago-Kent Law Review article, Food Allergies In Public Schools: Toward A Model Code
http://www.cklawreview.com/wp-content/uploads/vol85no2/Borella.pdf

USDA’s Accomodating Children With Special Dietary Needs
http://www.k12.wa.us/ChildNutrition/pubdocs/SpecialDietaryNeeds.PDF

Child and Teen Checkup Fact Sheet
http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/fh/mch/ctc/factsheets.html

Video: What to Expect From A Child’s Physical Exam https://www.aol.com/video/view/what-to-expect-from-a-childs-physical-exam/325661948/

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