University of California at Berkeley Study: Staying up late hurts teen’s academic achievement

17 Nov

Moi wrote in Teens need sleep: The UK’s Daily Mail reported that not only does lack of sleep result in kids not being ready to learn, but may be an explanation for some mental illnesses. In Online Night Owls ‘Risk Mental Illness’: Sleepless Nights Blamed For Rise in Teen Depression the Daily Mail reports:

Young people who become sleep deprived by using the internet into the small hours are much more likely to become mentally ill in later life, research shows.
Lack of sleep may help explain the puzzling increase in mental illness among young people in recent decades, according to an extensive study.
And regularly staying up late to surf the internet and chat on social networking sites could be one reason young people are sleeping less, according to the research.
The study of about 20,000 young people aged between 17 and 24 found that those who slept fewer than five hours a night were three times more likely than normal sleepers to become psychologically distressed in the next year.
Each hour of sleep lost was linked to a 14 per cent increased risk of distress, according to the results, published in the journal Sleep.
Professor Nicholas Glozier, who led the research, said: ‘Sleep disturbance and in particular insomnia is a predictor of later development of depression and possibly anxiety.’
Less sleep was also associated with longer-term mental health problems – which were the focus of the professor’s study.
A lot of mental ill-health comes and goes, he said. ‘It’s the ones who don’t get better that we are particularly interested in.’ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1308182/Online-night-owls-risk-mental-illness-Sleepless-nights-blamed-rise-teen-depression.html

It is important that children get enough sleep.

Vicki Abeles, director of the documentary “Race to Nowhere,”and Abigail A. Baird, associate professor of psychology at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, NY. Baird’s primary area of research focuses on the neurophysiology of adolescence are reporting in the Washington Post about the effect of sleep deprivation on teens. Abeles and Baird write in the article, Sleep deprivation and teens: ‘Walking zombies’:

Over the past several years we’ve created national guidelines for eating and exercise, shouldn’t we do the same for sleep?
We can also make changes in our schools, like advocating for later high school start times. An adolescent’s brain works on a different circadian rhythm than that of adults — theirs thrives with later wake-up times. After the start time at a high school in Edina, Minnesota, was changed from 7:25 a.m. to 8:30 a.m., verbal SAT scores for the top 10 percent of students increased by several hundred points. The increase could not be attributed to any variable other than later start times.
Schools should also adopt block schedules and bring back study halls, both of which reduce the number of classes students must prepare for each day and give them more in-school time to complete academic assignments rather than requiring them to put in a grueling “second shift” after school.
So as Daylight Savings Time kicks in and we lose our annual hour of sleep, let’s make a pledge to help our children get the sleep they need to be happy, healthy, and successful in school and in their lives.http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/post/sleep-deprivation-and-teens-walking-zombies/2012/03/10/gIQAr0QP3R_blog.html

The National Sleep Foundation (Sleep Foundation) has some great information about teens and sleep. http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/sleep-topics/teens-and-sleep
https://drwilda.com/2012/03/11/teens-need-sleep/

Huffington Post reported in the article, Teens Who Stay Up Late Could Face Academic, Emotional Problems Later On:

Teens who stay up late on school nights — whether it be due to homework, chatting online with friends or late sports practices — may experience more academic andemotional problems than their peers who are earlier to bed, a new study suggests.
Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, found that teens who went to bed later than 11:30 p.m. on school nights and 1:30 a.m. in the summer had lower GPAs than teens who got to bed earlier. They were also more susceptible to emotional problems.
“This very important study adds to the already clear evidence that youth who are night owls are at greater risk for adverse outcomes,” study researcher Allison Harvey, a psychologist at UC Berkeley, said in a statement. “Helping teens go to bed earlier may be an important pathway for reducing risk.”
The Journal of Adolescent Health study included 2,700 teens in grades 7 to 12 who were part of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Researchers analyzed their sleep habits and circadian patterns. About 30 percent of the teens said they went to bed later than 11:30 p.m. on school nights and 1:30 a.m. in the summer.
An association was found between going to bed later and getting less sleep (though this association was not found in the summertime, and sleep duration was not associated with changes in educational and emotional outcomes later on). The researchers also found an association between going to bed late during the school year and having worse educational outcomes, as well as higher emotional distress, after six to eight years. Late summertime bedtimes were not linked with academic outcomes, but were linked to higher emotional distress.
“These findings underscore the significance of evaluating and monitoring bedtime in adolescents and the importance of intervention strategies that target bedtimes in an effort to reduce associated functional impairments, and improve academic and emotional outcomes,” the researchers wrote in the study.
The findings add to past research also suggesting an association between late nights and poorer academic performance among teens. One study, presented at the SLEEP meeting in 2007, showed that teens who stay up late during the week and then oversleep on the weekends do worse in school…
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/11/14/teens-stay-up-late-academic-emotional-problems_n_4256298.html?utm_hp_ref=education&ir=Education

Citation:

The Effects of Bedtime and Sleep Duration on Academic and Emotional Outcomes in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents
Lauren D. Asarnow, M.A., Eleanor McGlinchey, Ph.D., Allison G. Harvey, Ph.D.email address
Received 16 April 2013; accepted 9 September 2013. published online 11 November 2013.
Corrected Proof
Abstract Full Text PDF Images References
Abstract
Purpose
The overall aim of this study was to clarify and better characterize the sleep/circadian patterns of adolescents in a nationally representative sample.
Methods
We used three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess sleep/circadian patterns of 2,700 adolescents in grades seven through 12.
Results
Late school year bedtime was associated with shorter total sleep time cross-sectionally, whereas late summertime bedtime was not. Moreover, late school year bedtime was not associated with late summertime bedtime cross-sectionally. Late school year bedtime in Wave I (1994–1995) was associated with worse educational outcomes and emotional distress 6–8 years later. In addition, late summertime bedtime in Wave II (1996) was associated with more emotional distress at Wave III (2001–2002). Short total sleep time was not associated longitudinally with changes in emotional and academic functioning. Across Waves I and II, more than three quarters of adolescents who went to sleep at 11:15 a.m. or later during the school year or 1:30 a.m. or later during the summer reported sleeping fewer than the recommended 9 hours.
Conclusions
These findings underscore the significance of evaluating and monitoring bedtime in adolescents and the importance of intervention strategies that target bedtimes in an effort to reduce associated functional impairments, and improve academic and emotional outcomes.
Keywords: Eveningness, Sleep, Adolescents, Academic outcomes, Emotional outcomes
Disclaimer: The opinions presented in this article reflect those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the granting agencies.
Funding Sources: This project was supported by a Lisa M. Capps Fellowship and a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship award to L.D.A., a National Institute of Child Health and Human DevelopmentRuth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award Predoctoral FellowshipF31-HD058411 awarded to E.L.M., and grant 1R01HD071065-01A1 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development awarded to A.G.H. This research used data from Add Health, a program project designed by J. Richard Udry, Peter S. Bearman, and Kathleen Mullan Harris, and funded by Grant P01-HD31921 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, with cooperative funding from 17 other agencies. This research used data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study, which was funded by Grant R01 HD040428-02 (PI: Chandra Muller) from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and Grant REC-0126167 (PI: Chandra Muller and Co-PI: Pedro Reyes) from the National Science Foundation. This research was also supported by Grant 5 R24 HD042849, Population Research Center, awarded to the Population Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Health and Child Development. No direct support was received from Grant P01-HD31921 for this analysis.
PII: S1054-139X(13)00486-2
doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.09.004
© 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Here is the press release from UC Berkeley:

Teen night owls likely to perform worse academically, emotionally
By Yasmin Anwar, Media Relations | November 10, 2013
BERKELEY —
Teenagers who go to bed late during the school year are more prone to academic and emotional difficulties in the long run, compared to their earlier-to-bed counterparts, according to a new study from UC Berkeley.
Berkeley researchers analyzed longitudinal data from a nationally representative cohort of 2,700 U.S. adolescents of whom 30 percent reported bedtimes later than 11:30 p.m. on school days and 1:30 a.m. in the summer in their middle and high school years.
By the time they graduated from high school, the school-year night owls had lower GPA scores, and were more vulnerable to emotional problems than teens with earlier bedtimes, according to the study published online Nov.10 in the Journal of Adolescent Health.
The results present a compelling argument in favor of later middle and high school start times in the face of intense academic, social and technological pressures, researchers said.
“Academic pressures, busy after-school schedules, and the desire to finally have free time at the end of the day to connect with friends on the phone or online make this problem even more challenging,” said Lauren Asarnow, lead author of the study and a graduate student in UC Berkeley’s Golden Bear Sleep and Mood Research Clinic.
On a positive note, she said the findings underscore how a healthy sleep cycle promotes the academic and emotional success of adolescents.
“The good news is that sleep behavior is highly modifiable with the right support,” said Asarnow, citing UC Berkeley’s Teen Sleep Study, a treatment program designed to reset the biological clocks of adolescents who have trouble going to sleep and waking up.
This latest UC Berkeley study used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has tracked the influences and behaviors of adolescents since 1994. Focusing on three time periods – the onset of puberty, a year later and young adulthood – UC Berkeley researchers compared how the sleep habits of 2,700 teenagers aged 13-18 impacted their academic, social and emotional development. They looked at participants’ school transcripts and other education and health data.
While going to bed late in the summer did not appear to impact their academic achievement, including grades, researchers did find a correlation between later summer bedtimes and emotional problems in young adulthood.
Surveys show that many teenagers do not get the recommended nine hours sleep a night, and report having trouble staying awake at school. The human circadian rhythm, which regulates physiological and metabolic functions, typically shifts to a later sleep cycle at the onset of puberty. UC Berkeley researchers theorize that an “evening circadian preference” in adolescence is a confluence of biological factors, as well as parental monitoring, academic and social pressures and the use of electronic gadgetry.
Late-night texting and the use of other electronic gadgetry can disrupt sleep patterns (iStockphoto)
For example, bright lights associated with laptops, smartphones and other electronic devices have been found to suppress melatonin, a hormone that helps regulate the sleep cycle. UC Berkeley’s Teen Sleep Study uses dim lighting and limits technology before bedtime, among other interventions, to help reverse this night-owl tendency.
‘This very important study adds to the already clear evidence that youth who are night owls are at greater risk for adverse outcomes,” said UC Berkeley psychologist Allison Harvey, senior author of the paper. “Helping teens go to bed earlier may be an important pathway for reducing risk. This will not be an easy process. But here at Berkeley, our sleep coaches draw from the science of motivation, habit formation and sleep to help teens achieve earlier bedtimes.”
Categories: Education, Health & medicine, News, Press Release, Science, Social science
Tags: academic performance, adolescent health, sleep, teen health, teenagers, teens

Education is a partnership between the student, parent(s) or guardian(s), teachers(s), and school. The students must arrive at school ready to learn and that includes being rested. Parent(s) and guardian(s) must ensure their child is properly nourished and rested as well as providing a home environment which is conducive to learning. Teachers must have strong subject matter knowledge and strong pedagogic skills. Schools must enforce discipline and provide safe places to learn. For more information on preparing your child for high school, see the U.S. Department of Education’s Tools for Success http://www2.ed.gov/parents/academic/help/tools-for-success/index.html

Resources
1. National Sleep Foundation’s Teens and Sleep
http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/sleep-topics/teens-and-sleep

2. Teen Health’s Common Sleep Problems http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_body/take_care/sleep.html

3. CBS Morning News’ Sleep Deprived Kids and Their Disturbing Thoughts http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-500165_162-6052150.html

4. Psychology Today’s Sleepless in America http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sleepless-in-america

5. National Association of State Board’s of Education Fit, Healthy and Ready to Learn
http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED465734

6. U.S. Department of Education’s Tools for Success http://www2.ed.gov/parents/academic/help/tools-for-success/index.html

Related:

Another study: Sleep problems can lead to behavior problems in children
https://drwilda.com/2013/03/30/another-study-sleep-problems-can-lead-to-behavior-problems-in-children/

Stony Brook Medicine study: Teens need sleep to function properly and make healthy food choices https://drwilda.com/2013/06/21/stony-brook-medicine-study-teens-need-sleep-to-function-properly-and-make-healthy-food-choices/

University of Massachusetts Amherst study: Preschoolers need naps
Does school start too early?
https://drwilda.com/tag/too-little-sleep-raises-obesity-risk-in-children/

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One Response to “University of California at Berkeley Study: Staying up late hurts teen’s academic achievement”

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  1. Taking Teenage Depression Seriously - January 22, 2014

    […] The ReachOut Charity Lunchhow can i deal with teenage depression, anxiousness, paranoia and tensionUniversity of California at Berkeley Study: Staying up late hurts teen’s academic achievementWhat to do if you think your teenager is taking drugsMrs TeePot – Life…to a tee […]

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