Tag Archives: what is a concussion Children’s Health

Northwestern University School of Medicine study: Concussions and female middle school students

2 Aug

According to Michelle Healy of USA Today, 1.35 million youths a year have serious sports injuries http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/08/06/injuries-athletes-kids-sports/2612429/ Among those injuries are concussions. Kids Health has some great information about concussions at their site:

What Is a Concussion and What Causes It?
The brain is made of soft tissue and is cushioned by spinal fluid. It is encased in the hard, protective skull. When a person gets a head injury, the brain can move around inside the skull and even bang against it. This can lead to bruising of the brain, tearing of blood vessels, and injury to the nerves. When this happens, a person can get a concussion — a temporary loss of normal brain function.
Most people with concussions recover just fine with appropriate treatment. But it’s important to take proper steps if you suspect a concussion because it can be serious.
Concussions and other brain injuries are fairly common. About every 21 seconds, someone in the United States has a serious brain injury. One of the most common reasons people get concussions is through a sports injury. High-contact sports such as football, boxing, and hockey pose a higher risk of head injury, even with the use of protective headgear.
People can also get concussions from falls, car accidents, bike and blading mishaps, and physical violence, such as fighting. Guys are more likely to get concussions than girls. However, in certain sports, like soccer, girls have a higher potential for concussion.http://kidshealth.org/teen/safety/first_aid/concussions.html#a_What_Is_a_Concussion_and_What_Causes_It_

https://drwilda.com/2012/03/06/dont-ignore-concussions/
See, Update: Don’t ignore concussions https://drwilda.com/2012/05/20/update-dont-ignore-concussions/
More studies are pointing to the risks of girls playing contact sports.

Science Daily reported in Middle-school girls continue to play soccer with concussion symptoms:

Concussions are common among middle-school girls who play soccer, and most continue to play with symptoms, according to a study by John W. O’ Kane, M.D., of the University of Washington Sports Medicine Clinic, Seattle, and colleagues.
Sports-related concussions account for 1.6 to 3.8 million injuries in the United States annually, including about 50,000 soccer-related concussions among high school players. Injury-tracking systems for younger players are lacking so they are largely unstudied, according to the study background.
Using an email survey and interviews, the authors evaluated the frequency and duration of concussions in young female soccer players, as well as whether the injuries resulted in stopping play and seeking medical attention. Their study included 351 soccer players (ages 11 to 14 years) from soccer clubs in the Puget Sound region of Washington.
Among 351 players, there were 59 concussions with 43,742 athletic exposure hours. Concussion symptoms can include memory loss, dizziness, drowsiness, headache and nausea. Cumulative concussion incidence was 13 percent per season with an incidence of 1.2 per 1,000 athletic exposure hours. Symptoms lasted a median four days (average 9.4 days). Heading the ball accounted for 30.5 percent of concussions. Most players (58.6 percent) continued to play with symptoms, with almost half (44.1 percent) seeking medical attention, according to the results.
The authors note that the rate of 1.3 concussions per 1,000 athletic exposure hours was higher than what has been reported in other studies of girls soccer at the high school and college levels…. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140120173456.htm

Another study from Northwestern School of Medicine, Concussion and Female Middle School Athletes focuses on girls. Coaches and parents must be alert to signs of concussion. WebMD has a good description of what a concussion is and the signs of concussion http://www.webmd.com/brain/tc/traumatic-brain-injury-concussion-overview

Citation:

From The JAMA Network | August 01, 2014
Concussion and Female Middle School Athletes FREE ONLINE FIRST
Cynthia LaBella, MD1
[+] Author Affiliations
JAMA. Published online August 01, 2014. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.6668
Text Size: A A A
Article
References
JAMA Pediatrics
Concussion Among Female Middle-School Soccer Players
John W. O’Kane, MD; Amy Spieker, MPH; Marni R. Levy, BS; Moni Neradilek, MS; Nayak L. Polissar, PhD; Melissa A. Schiff, MD, MPH
Importance Despite recent increased awareness about sports concussions, little research has evaluated concussions among middle-school athletes.
Objectives To evaluate the frequency and duration of concussions in female youth soccer players and to determine if concussions result in stopping play and seeking medical care.
Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study from March 2008 through May 2012 among 4 soccer clubs from the Puget Sound region of Washington State, involving 351 elite female soccer players, aged 11 to 14 years, from 33 randomly selected youth soccer teams. Of the players contacted, 83.1% participated and 92.4% completed the study.
Main Outcomes and Measures Concussion cumulative incidence, incidence rate, and description of the number, type, and duration of symptoms. We inquired weekly about concussion symptoms and, if present, the symptom type and duration, the event resulting in symptom onset, and whether the player sought medical attention or played while symptomatic.
Results Among the 351 soccer players, there were 59 concussions with 43 742 athletic exposure hours. Cumulative concussion incidence was 13.0% per season, and the incidence rate was 1.2 per 1000 athletic exposure hours (95% CI, 0.9-1.6). Symptoms lasted a median of 4.0 days (mean, 9.4 days). Heading the ball accounted for 30.5% of concussions. Players with the following symptoms had a longer recover time than players without these symptoms: light sensitivity (16.0 vs 3.0 days, P = .001), emotional lability (15.0 vs 3.5 days, P = .002), noise sensitivity (12.0 vs 3.0 days, P = .004), memory loss (9.0 vs 4.0 days, P = .04), nausea (9.0 vs 3.0 days, P = .02), and concentration problems (7.0 vs 2.0 days, P = .02). Most players (58.6%) continued to play with symptoms, with almost half (44.1%) seeking medical attention.
Conclusions and Relevance Concussion rates in young female soccer players are greater than those reported in older age groups, and most of those concussed report playing with symptoms. Heading the ball is a frequent precipitating event. Awareness of recommendations to not play and seek medical attention is lacking for this age group.
JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(3):258-264. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.4518.

Parents must be alert to what is happening with the children when they participate in athletic events and activities.

Resources:

Concussions http://kidshealth.org/teen/safety/first_aid/concussions.html#a_What_Is_a_Concussion_and_What_Causes_It_

Concussion http://www.emedicinehealth.com/concussion/article_em.htm

Concussion – Overview http://www.webmd.com/brain/tc/traumatic-brain-injury-concussion-overview

Related :

Study: Effects of a concussion linger for months https://drwilda.com/2012/12/13/study-effects-of-a-concussion-linger-for-months/

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Dr. Wilda says this about that ©

Blogs by Dr. Wilda:

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NCAA beginning to take concussions seriously

22 Jul

Moi posted in Don’t ignore concussions:
Kids Health has some great information about concussions at their site:

What Is a Concussion and What Causes It?
The brain is made of soft tissue and is cushioned by spinal fluid. It is encased in the hard, protective skull. When a person gets a head injury, the brain can move around inside the skull and even bang against it. This can lead to bruising of the brain, tearing of blood vessels, and injury to the nerves. When this happens, a person can get a concussion — a temporary loss of normal brain function.
Most people with concussions recover just fine with appropriate treatment. But it’s important to take proper steps if you suspect a concussion because it can be serious.
Concussions and other brain injuries are fairly common. About every 21 seconds, someone in the United States has a serious brain injury. One of the most common reasons people get concussions is through a sports injury. High-contact sports such as football, boxing, and hockey pose a higher risk of head injury, even with the use of protective headgear.
People can also get concussions from falls, car accidents, bike and blading mishaps, and physical violence, such as fighting. Guys are more likely to get concussions than girls. However, in certain sports, like soccer, girls have a higher potential for concussion.
http://kidshealth.org/teen/safety/first_aid/concussions.html#a_What_Is_a_Concussion_and_What_Causes_It_

Dr. Rivara has published a study of how serious concussions can be.
Lindsey Tanner of AP reports on a new study about concussions in the article, Even mild concussions can cause lingering symptoms:

Children with even relatively mild concussions can have persistent attention and memory problems a year after their injuries, according to a study that helps identify which kids may be most at risk for lingering symptoms.
In most kids with these injuries, symptoms resolve within a few months but the study results suggest that problems may linger for up to about 20 percent, said study author Keith Owen Yeates, a neuropsychologist at Ohio State University’s Center for Biobehaviorial Health.
Problems like forgetfulness were more likely to linger than fatigue, dizziness and other physical complaints, the study found.
Forgetfulness, difficulty paying attention, headaches and fatigue were more common in study children who lost consciousness or who had other mild head trauma that caused brain abnormalities on imaging tests, compared with kids who didn’t get knocked out or who had normal imaging test results.
The study looked at symptoms up to a year after injury so it doesn’t answer whether any kids had longer-lasting or permanent problems.
“What parents want to know is if my kid is going to do OK. Most do OK, but we have to get better at predicting which kids are going to have problems,” Yeates said.
Those who do may need temporary accommodations, including extra time taking school tests, or wearing sunglasses if bright light gives them headaches, he said.
Most children studied had concussions from playing sports or from falls. About 20 percent had less common mild brain trauma from traffic accidents and other causes.
Concussions involve a blow to the head that jostles the brain against the skull, although imaging scans typically show no abnormalities. Other mild brain trauma can cause tissue damage visible on these scans.
The study included 186 children aged 8 to 15 with mild concussions and other mild brain injuries treated at two hospitals, in Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio. The reports are based on parents’ reports of symptoms up to 12 months after the injuries.
The brain injuries studied were considered mild because they involved no more than half an hour of unconsciousness; 60 percent of kids with concussions or other brain trauma — 74 children — had no loss of consciousness.
Overall, 20 percent — 15 children — who lost consciousness had lingering forgetfulness or other non-physical problems a year after their injury; while 20 percent who had abnormal brain scans — six kids — had lingering headaches or other physical problems three months after being injured.
http://www.seattlepi.com/news/article/Even-mild-concussions-can-cause-lingering-symptoms-3383079.php#ixzz1oMUeQVuu

Citation:
Concussion
Time to Start Paying Attention
Frederick P. Rivara, MD, MPH
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Published online March 5, 2012. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.1602
Coaches and parents must be alert to signs of concussion. https://drwilda.com/2012/03/06/dont-ignore-concussions/

Brad Wolverton reported in the Chronicle of Higher Education article, NCAA Medical Chief on Concussions: ‘There’s a Sense of Urgency’:

Since starting at the NCAA, in January, Dr. Hainline, a neurologist and the former top medical officer of the United States Tennis Association, has been traveling the country to spread the word about three of the biggest challenges he sees: concussion, which he calls the “elephant at the table”; student-athlete mental health; and the delivery of health care in a “patient-centered” model.
If you read some of the e-mails filed on Friday in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, where the case is being heard, you might think NCAA colleges have a long way to go on that last challenge.
According to a 2010 NCAA survey on concussions, nearly half of the responding institutions said they had allowed players back into a game on the same day of a concussion diagnosis. One assistant trainer said he had personally seen a football player knocked unconscious and then returned in the same quarter of a contest.
Dr. Hainline would not comment on the NCAA’s concussion litigation, saying that it raised complex questions that could take hours to explain (he and David Klossner, the NCAA’s director of health and safety, spoke to me for more than 30 minutes).
But Dr. Hainline said that, until the end of 2012, there was not a widely accepted consensus among medical experts about the need to keep players out of action on the same day of a concussion. Before that, one closely watched set of guidelines suggested that players should not be returned on the same day—but left open a window for adult or elite athletes under special circumstances.
Dr. Hainline argued that the decision to return is complicated by the players themselves, who often report that they are ready to go even when they shouldn’t. He pointed to a forthcoming study showing that 50 percent of players in one Division I conference were underreporting injuries, including concussion….http://chronicle.com/blogs/players/ncaas-medical-chief-on-concussions-theres-a-sense-of-urgency/33301?cid=pm&utm_source=pm&utm_medium=en

People must take concussions very seriously.

Resources:

Concussions http://kidshealth.org/teen/safety/first_aid/concussions.html#a_What_Is_a_Concussion_and_What_Causes_It_
Concussion http://www.emedicinehealth.com/concussion/article_em.htm
Concussion – Overview
http://www.webmd.com/brain/tc/traumatic-brain-injury-concussion-overview

Related:

Study: Effects of a concussion linger for months
https://drwilda.com/2012/12/13/study-effects-of-a-concussion-linger-for-months/
Update: Don’t ignore concussions
https://drwilda.com/2012/05/20/update-dont-ignore-concussions/
Where information leads to Hope. ©  Dr. Wilda.com
Dr. Wilda says this about that ©
Blogs by Dr. Wilda:
COMMENTS FROM AN OLD FART©                            http://drwildaoldfart.wordpress.com/
Dr. Wilda Reviews ©                                                 http://drwildareviews.wordpress.com/
Dr. Wilda ©                                                                                          https://drwilda.com/